Next Article in Journal
Does Local Adaptation Impact on the Distribution of Competing Aedes Disease Vectors?
Previous Article in Journal
Sharing Lisboa: A Digital Social Market to Promote Sustainable and Energy Efficient Behaviours
Open AccessArticle

Interannual Variability of Air Temperature over Myanmar: The Influence of ENSO and IOD

1
Binjiang College, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Wuxi 214105, China
2
School of Atmospheric Science, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology (NUIST), Nanjing 210044, China
3
Institute of Peace and Conflicts Studies, University of Peshawar, 25000 Peshawar, Pakistan
4
Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disasters, Ministry of Education (KLME)/Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters (CIC-FEMD), Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
5
Weather Online Institute of Meteorological Applications, Wuxi 214000, China
6
Department of Management Sciences, University of Haripur, 22780 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
7
School of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Climate 2021, 9(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9020035
Received: 19 December 2020 / Revised: 12 February 2021 / Accepted: 16 February 2021 / Published: 21 February 2021
Myanmar is located in a tropical region where temperature rises very fast and hence is highly vulnerable to climate change. The high variability of the air temperature poses potential risks to the local community. Thus, the current study uses 42 synoptic meteorological stations to assess the spatiotemporal changes in air temperature over Myanmar during 1971–2013. The nonparametric sequential Mann-Kendall (SqMK), linear regression, empirical orthogonal function (EOF), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and composite analysis were used to assess the long-term trends in maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperature series and their possible mechanism over the study region. The results indicate that the trend of Tmax has significantly increased at the rates of 90% in summer season, while the Tmin revealed a substantial positive trend in winter season time series with the magnitude of 30%, respectively. Moreover, during a rapid change of climate (1995–2013) we observed an air temperature increase of 0.7 °C. The spatial distributions of EOF revealed relatively warmer temperatures over the whole region except the south in the summer; however, a similar pattern can be seen for the rainy season and winter, implying warming in the central part and cooling in the northern and southern parts. Furthermore, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) influence on air temperature over Myanmar is more prevalent than that of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The result implies that the positive phase of the IOD and negative phase of the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI; El Niño) events led to the higher temperature, resulting in intense climatic extremes (i.e., droughts and heatwaves) over the target region. Therefore, this study’s findings can help policymakers and decision-makers improve economic growth, agricultural production, ecology, water resource management, and preserving the natural habitat in the target region. View Full-Text
Keywords: air temperature; interannual variability; ENSO; IOD; Myanmar air temperature; interannual variability; ENSO; IOD; Myanmar
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Mie Sein, Z.M.; Ullah, I.; Syed, S.; Zhi, X.; Azam, K.; Rasool, G. Interannual Variability of Air Temperature over Myanmar: The Influence of ENSO and IOD. Climate 2021, 9, 35. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9020035

AMA Style

Mie Sein ZM, Ullah I, Syed S, Zhi X, Azam K, Rasool G. Interannual Variability of Air Temperature over Myanmar: The Influence of ENSO and IOD. Climate. 2021; 9(2):35. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9020035

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mie Sein, Zin M.; Ullah, Irfan; Syed, Sidra; Zhi, Xiefei; Azam, Kamran; Rasool, Ghulam. 2021. "Interannual Variability of Air Temperature over Myanmar: The Influence of ENSO and IOD" Climate 9, no. 2: 35. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9020035

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop