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Open AccessArticle

A Model to Assess Eastern Cottonwood Water Flow Using Adjusted Vapor Pressure Deficit Associated with a Climate Change Impact Application

1
USDA Forest Service, Center for Bottomland Hardwoods Research, 775 Stone Blvd., Thompson Hall, Room 309, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA
2
USDA Forest Service, Center for Bottomland Hardwoods Research, 432 Stoneville Road, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA
3
Department of Forestry, Mississippi State University, Hood Road, MS 39762, USA
4
School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Climate 2021, 9(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9020022
Received: 11 December 2020 / Revised: 29 December 2020 / Accepted: 19 January 2021 / Published: 23 January 2021
Short-rotation woody crops have maintained global prominence as biomass feedstocks for bioenergy, in part due to their fast growth and coppicing ability. However, the water usage efficiency of some woody biomass crops suggests potential adverse hydrological impacts. Monitoring tree water use in large-scale plantations would be very time-consuming and cost-prohibitive because it would typically require the installation and maintenance of sap flux sensors and dataloggers or other instruments. We developed a model to estimate the sap flux of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides. Bartr. ex Marsh.)) grown in bioenergy plantations. This model is based on adjusted vapor pressure deficit (VPD) using Structural Thinking and Experiential Learning Laboratory with Animation (STELLA) software (Architect Version 1.8.2), and is validated using the sap flux data collected from a 4-year-old eastern cottonwood biomass production plantation. With R2 values greater than 0.79 and Nash Sutcliffe coefficients greater than 0.69 and p values < 0.001, a strong agreement was obtained between measured and predicted diurnal sap flux patterns and annual sap flux cycles. We further validated the model using eastern cottonwood sap flux data from Aiken, South Carolina, USA with a good agreement between method predictions and field measurements. The model was able to predict a typical diurnal pattern, with sap flux density increasing during the day and decreasing at night for a 5-year-old cottonwood plantation. We found that a 10% increase in VPD due to climate change increased the sap flux of eastern cottonwood by about 5%. Our model also forecasted annual sap flux characteristics of measured cycles that increased in the spring, reached a maximum in the summer, and decreased in the fall. The model developed here can be adapted to estimate sap flux of other trees species in a time- and cost-effective manner. View Full-Text
Keywords: cottonwood; climate change; sap flux; STELLA; vapor pressure deficit cottonwood; climate change; sap flux; STELLA; vapor pressure deficit
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ouyang, Y.; Leininger, T.D.; Renninger, H.; Gardiner, E.S.; Samuelson, L. A Model to Assess Eastern Cottonwood Water Flow Using Adjusted Vapor Pressure Deficit Associated with a Climate Change Impact Application. Climate 2021, 9, 22. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9020022

AMA Style

Ouyang Y, Leininger TD, Renninger H, Gardiner ES, Samuelson L. A Model to Assess Eastern Cottonwood Water Flow Using Adjusted Vapor Pressure Deficit Associated with a Climate Change Impact Application. Climate. 2021; 9(2):22. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9020022

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ouyang, Ying; Leininger, Theodor D.; Renninger, Heidi; Gardiner, Emile S.; Samuelson, Lisa. 2021. "A Model to Assess Eastern Cottonwood Water Flow Using Adjusted Vapor Pressure Deficit Associated with a Climate Change Impact Application" Climate 9, no. 2: 22. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9020022

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