This paper evaluates contributions to global temperature anomalies from greenhouse gas concentrations and from a source of natural variability. There is no accepted causation for the apparent interrelationships between multidecadal oscillations and regime changes in atmospheric circulation, upwelling, and the slowdowns in global surface temperatures associated with a ~60-year oscillation. Exogenous tidal forcing is hypothesized as a major causal agent for these elements, with orthogonal components in tidal forcing generating zonal and meridional regime-dependent processes in the climate system. Climate oscillations are simulated at quasi-biennial to multidecadal timescales by tidal periodicities determined by close approaches of new or full moon to the earth. Subtracting a tidal analog of the ~60-year oscillation from global mean surface temperatures reveals an exponential component comparable with greenhouse gas emission scenarios, and which is responsible for almost 90% or contemporary global temperature increases. Residual subdecadal temperature anomalies correlate with the subdecadal variability of evolved carbon dioxide (CO2
), ENSO activity and tidal components, and indicate a causal sequence from tidal forcing to greenhouse gas (GHG) release to temperature increase. Tidal periodicities can all be expressed in terms of four fundamental frequencies. Because of the potential importance of this formulation, tests are urged using general circulation models.
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