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Open AccessArticle

Smart Sensing System for Early Detection of Bone Loss: Current Status and Future Possibilities

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School of Engineering, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia
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School of Food and Nutrition, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7010010
Received: 8 January 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 27 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Homes: Current Status and Future Possibilities)
Bone loss and osteoporosis is a serious health problem worldwide. The impact of osteoporosis is far greater than many other serious health problems, such as breast and prostate cancers. Statistically, one in three women and one in five men over 50 years of age will experience osteoporotic fractures in their life. In this paper, the design and development of a portable IoT-based sensing system for early detection of bone loss have been presented. The CTx-I biomarker was measured in serum samples as a marker of bone resorption. A planar interdigital sensor was used to evaluate the changes in impedance by any variation in the level of CTx-I. Artificial antibodies were used to introduce selectivity to the sensor for CTx-I molecule. Artificial antibodies for CTx-I molecules were created using molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) technique in order to increase the stability of the system and reduce the production cost and complexity of the assay procedure. Real serum samples collected from sheep blood were tested and the result validation was done by using an ELISA kit. The PoC device was able to detect CTx-I concentration as low as 0.09 ng/mL. It exhibited an excellent linear behavior in the range of 0.1–2.5 ng/mL, which covers the normal reference ranges required for bone loss detection. Future possibilities to develop a smart toilet for simultaneous measurement of different bone turnover biomarkers was also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone; osteoporosis; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); interdigital sensor; molecular imprinted polymer (MIP); internet of things (IoT) bone; osteoporosis; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); interdigital sensor; molecular imprinted polymer (MIP); internet of things (IoT)
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Afsarimanesh, N.; Alahi, M.E.E.; Mukhopadhyay, S.C.; Kruger, M. Smart Sensing System for Early Detection of Bone Loss: Current Status and Future Possibilities. J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7, 10.

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