Priority-Based Content Delivery in the Internet of Vehicles through Named Data Networking †
- It identifies the content priority with well-known name prefixes and uses the “freshness” parameter carried out in NDN packets to further characterize the content delivery demands.
- It dynamically molds the NDN forwarding decisions according to the name prefix of contents, by selecting the outgoing interface(s) and properly tuning the defer timers of broadcast transmissions over the 802.11 OCB interface.
2. Traffic Prioritization in IoV: What and Why?
2.1. Towards IoV Applications
2.2. Heterogeneous Networking for IoV
3. Background and Motivations
3.1. Vehicular NDN
3.2. NDN Forwarding in VANETs
3.2.1. Single-Face Communications
3.2.2. Multi-Face Communications
4. The Priority-Based Forwarding Framework
- an advanced naming scheme that tags NDN packets with a name prefix identifying the application latency requirements and the consumer preferences;
- a freshness attribute in the Interest that captures the consumer expectation for the data retrieval;
- a smart strategy layer that decides where and when NDN packets should be transmitted, forwarded and (if necessary) retransmitted. To this aim, it encompasses the following modules: (i) the face selection, which decides which network face(s) is (are) forwarding an Interest; (ii) a freshness-based forwarding protocol, which accounts for the freshness specified by the consumer to decide if the Data can be served by the content store; (iii) a timing algorithm, implemented only on top of the 802.11 OCB face, which ensures the efficient and prioritized multi-hop delivery of Interest and Data packets in the V2V/V2R domain; and (iv) an Interest retransmission scheme, which allows a consumer to retransmit Interests whenever the Data packets are not received within a predefined time interval.
4.1. Naming and Freshness Settings
- Application latency requirements: Vehicular applications usually have specific time constraints. For instance, the reception of road traffic information may be urgent for a vehicle planning its route. The Interest asking for such information should be forwarded with some privileges w.r.t. the Interest requesting the retrieval of software updates of the in-vehicle infotainment platform.
- User-defined preferences: Different network faces have usually different high-level characteristics, such as the monetary costs and the bandwidth limits. For instance, 802.11 OCB operates on the unlicensed spectrum enabling V2V and V2R connectivity free of charge; whereas the cellular network provides V2I connectivity over licensed frequencies and, typically, with a data plan requiring a monthly fee.
4.2. Face Selection and Forwarding
- Interests for Low Priority (LP) contents (i.e., with prefix name /low) are forwarded only over the 802.11 OCB interface.
- High Priority (HP) contents (i.e., with prefix name set to /high) are forwarded by consumers according to a parallel forwarding strategy, i.e., the Interest is simultaneously forwarded on both faces. This is to ensure the low latency and reliable delivery of such sensitive data. Vice versa, vehicles acting as forwarders may decide, according to their own user-defined preferences (e.g., monetary costs), whether to use only the IEEE 802.11 OCB face or also apply the parallel strategy. In case the LTE face is not available for a forwarding vehicle, it can only forward the Interest over the IEEE 802.11 OCB face.
4.3. IEEE 802.11 OCB Timing Algorithm
4.4. Interest Retransmissions
5. Simulation Settings
- Single-Face NDN without prioritization (SF-NDN): All content is requested only over the 802.11 OCB face. The forwarding strategy is based on the BF protocol; Interest/Data packets of different contents are transmitted without differentiation.
- Single-Face NDN with prioritization (SF-pNDN): Similarly to the previous case, all content is requested only over the 802.11 OCB face, and the forwarding strategy is based on the BF protocol. In addition, the timing algorithm for traffic prioritization mechanism is applied; two transmission windows, IDW and DDW, are identified for high/low priority data delivery, as described in Section 4.3.
- Multi-Face NDN without prioritization (MF-NDN): Similarly to , content requests are transmitted over both faces, regardless of their performance and the priority of content.
- Multi-Face NDN with prioritization (MF-pNDN): According to the pNDN face selection module, LP and HP contents are differently transmitted over the network faces. LP content is only requested over the 802.11 OCB interface by both consumers and forwarding vehicles; HP content is requested with the parallel strategy by consumers, while forwarding vehicles use the 802.11 OCB face only. Packets transmitted over the 802.11 OCB face follow the timing algorithm described in Section 4.3 for prioritization.
- Content retrieval time: the average time required for a consumer to retrieve all of the Data packets of the desired content.
- Interest overhead: the total number of Interest packets transmitted and retransmitted (over both faces when MF-schemes are considered) during the simulation by all of the nodes involved in the content retrieval (i.e., consumers and intermediate nodes) over the total number of useful (non-duplicated) Data packets received by the consumers.
- Interest retransmissions: the percentage of Interests retransmitted by the consumers (at the RTO expiration) over the number of Interest packets required to retrieve the desired content (excluding retransmissions).
- Data retrieved over the 802.11 OCB face (defined for the MF-* schemes only): the percentage of useful Data packets received by the consumers via the 802.11 OCB face over the number of Interest packets required to retrieve the desired content (excluding retransmissions). The percentage of Data packets received from the LTE face can be inferred through the complementary value.
6. Evaluation Results
7. Conclusions and Future Works
Conflicts of Interest
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|Application||Content size||1 MB|
|Data payload||1000 bytes|
|Content popularity||Zipf distribution|
|Topology||Area size||3.2 × 1.7 km2|
|Number of vehicles||200|
|Number of RSUs||55|
|Mobility model||SUMO |
|Load||Number of consumers||8–24|
|802.11 OCB||Propagation model||Nakagami |
|Data rate||6 Mbps |
|NDN||Defer Window ||511|
|DeferSlotTime ||58 μs|
|Number of Consumers||8||12||16||20||24|
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Amadeo, M.; Campolo, C.; Molinaro, A. Priority-Based Content Delivery in the Internet of Vehicles through Named Data Networking. J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2016, 5, 17. https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan5040017
Amadeo M, Campolo C, Molinaro A. Priority-Based Content Delivery in the Internet of Vehicles through Named Data Networking. Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks. 2016; 5(4):17. https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan5040017Chicago/Turabian Style
Amadeo, Marica, Claudia Campolo, and Antonella Molinaro. 2016. "Priority-Based Content Delivery in the Internet of Vehicles through Named Data Networking" Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks 5, no. 4: 17. https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan5040017