- freely available
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2016, 5(2), 7; doi:10.3390/jsan5020007
- in lowering transaction and coordination costs,
- in making commercial transactions of complex products and
- that facilitates the market exchange by alleviating the effects of the growing power of mega-platforms.
2. Motivation and Background
2.1. Smart Cities
2.2. e-Business Modeling
- customer value proposition,
- value generation architecture and
- revenue model.
2.3. Use Case Description
3. Overall Objectives
3.1. Business Goals
4. Related Work
4.1. Electronic Marketplaces and Related Initiatives
4.2. Smart City Architectures
5. Architecture of the Distributed Market Spaces
5.1. High-Level Overview
5.1.1. Interaction with a Single Market Space Instance
5.1.2. Distributed Transaction in the Distributed Market Space
5.1.3. Discovery of DMS Instances
5.2.1. Functional View of the DMS
- to transform a user’s intention into a complex product request,
- to distribute these requests to multiple market spaces,
- to receive (partial) complex product offers,
- to re-combine them into multiple complete complex product proposals,
- to rank them according to the buyer’s context and requirements and
- to coordinate the distributed buying transaction.
- to register with the offered products/services,
- to receive decomposed product requests and
- to provide offers.
5.2.2. Information View of the DMS
5.2.3. Demonstrator Implementation
6. Conclusion and Future Work
Conflicts of Interest
- Cisco. The Internet of Everything for Cities. 2013. Available online: http://www.cisco.com/web/about/ac79/docs/ps/motm/IoE-Smart-City_PoV.pdf (accessed on 8 January 2016).
- Akerlof, G.A. The market for lemons: Quality uncertainty and the market mechanism. Q. J. Econ. 1970, 84, 488–500. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wang, R. Disruptive Digital Business; Harvard Business Review Press: Boston, MA, USA, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Inspiring the Internet of Things, 2011. Available online: http://www.alexandra.dk/uk/services/Publications/Documents/IoT_Comic_Book.pdf (accessed on 8 January 2016).
- Caragliu, A.; Del Bo, C.; Nijkamp, P. Smart Cities in Europe. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Regional Science (CERS), Kosice, Slovakia, 7–9 October 2009.
- Komninos, N.; Pallot, M.; Schaffers, H. Special Issue on Smart Cities and the Future Internet in Europe. J. Knowl. Econ. 2013, 4, 119–134. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Anthopolous, L.; Fitsilis, P. Exploring Architectural and Organizational Features in Smart Cities. In Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology, Pyeongchang, Korea, 16–19 February 2014.
- Grefen, P. Beyond E-Business: Towards Networked Structures; Routledge: New York, NY, USA, 2016; pp. 53–246. [Google Scholar]
- Teece, D.J. Business models, business strategy and innovation. Long Range Plan. 2010, 43, 172–194. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Osterwalder, A.; Pigneur, Y. An eBusiness model ontology for modeling eBusiness. In Proceedings of the 15th Bled Electronic Commerce Conference eReality: Constructing the eEconomy, Bled, Slovenia, 17–19 June 2002.
- Stähler, P. Business models as an unit of analysis for strategizing. In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Business Models, Lausanne, Switzerland, 4–5 October 2002; pp. 4–5.
- Osterwalder, A.; Pigneur, Y. Business Model Generation: A Handbook for Visionaries, Game Changers, and Thallengers; John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Gassmann, O.; Frankenberger, K.; Csik, M. The Business Model Navigator: 55 Models that will Revolutionise Your Business; Pearson: London, UK, 2014; pp. 3–14. [Google Scholar]
- Amit, R.; Zott, C. Value Creation in E-Business; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: Malden, MA, USA, 2001; Vol. 22, pp. 493–520. [Google Scholar]
- Rozanski, N.; Woods, E. Software Systems Architecture: Working with Stakeholders Using Viewpoints and Perspectives; Addison-Wesley: Boston, MA, USA, 2011; pp. 12–29. [Google Scholar]
- Einav, L.; Farronato, C.; Levin, J. Peer-to-Peer Markets, Technical Report; National Bureau of Economic Research: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Bakos, Y. The emerging role of electronic marketplaces on the Internet. Commun. ACM 1998, 41, 35–42. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Anderson, C. The Long Tail; Hyperion: New York, NY, USA, 2006. [Google Scholar]
- García-Gómez, S.; Jimenez-Ganan, M.; Taher, Y.; Momm, C.; Junker, F.; Biro, J.; Menychtas, A.; Andrikopoulos, V.; Strauch, S. Challenges for the comprehensive management of Cloud Services in a PaaS framework. Scalable Computing Pract. Exp. 2012, 13, 201–214. [Google Scholar]
- Kingsley, I.; Hepp, M.; Bucchi, A. Linked Open Commerce. 2015. Available online: http://linkedopencommerce.com (accessed on 8 January 2016).
- Hepp, M. Goodrelations: An Ontology for Describing Products and Services Offers on the Web. In Knowledge Engineering: Practice and Patterns; Springer: Heidelberg, Germany, 2008; pp. 329–346. [Google Scholar]
- Searls, D. The Intention Economy: When Customers Take Charge; Harvard Business Press: Boston, MA, USA, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard University. ProjectVRM. 2015. Available online: http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/vrm/projects/ (accessed on 8 January 2016).
- Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard University. ProjectVRM Wiki. 2015. Available online: http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/projectvrm/MainPage (accessed on 8 January 2016).
- Kleedorfer, F.; Busch, C.M.; Pichler, C.; Huemer, C. The Case for the Web of Needs. In Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE 16th Conference on Business Informatics (CBI), Geneva, Switzerland, 14–17 July 2014; Volume 1, pp. 94–101.
- Kleedorfer, F.; Busch, C.M. Beyond Data: Building a Web of Needs. In Proceedings of the WWW2013 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 14 May 2013.
- W3C. Resource Description Framework (RDF), 2015. Available online: http://www.w3.org/RDF/ (accessed on 8 January 2016).
- Holler, J.; Tsiatsis, V.; Mulligan, C.; Avesand, S.; Karnouskos, S.; Boyle, D. From Machine-to-machine to the Internet of Things: Introduction to a New Age of Intelligence; Academic Press: Oxford, UK, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- da Silva, W.M.; Alvaro, A.; Tomas, G.H.; Afonso, R.A.; Dias, K.L.; Garcia, V.C. Smart cities software architectures: a survey. In Proceedings of the 28th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, Coimbra, Portugal, 18–22 March 2013; pp. 1722–1727.
- Lee, J.; Baik, S.; Lee, C. Building an integrated service management platform for ubiquitous cities. Computer 2011, 44, 56–63. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- PlanIT. Introduction to PlanIT Urban Operating SystemTM Architecture, 2015. Available online: http://living-planit.com/pdf/living-planit-introduction-to-uos-architecture-whitepaper-2015-05-24-v14.pdf (accessed on 8 January 2016).
- Merlino, G.; Bruneo, D.; Distefano, S.; Longo, F.; Puliafito, A. Stack4Things: Integrating IoT with OpenStack in a Smart City Context. In Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Smart Computing Workshops (SMARTCOMP Workshops), Hong Kong, China, 5 November 2014; pp. 21–28.
- IBM Research. SCRIBE Models and Methodology: Smart Cities Reference Information and Behavior Exchange Ontologies, 2015. Available online: http://researcher.watson.ibm.com/researcher/view_group.php?id=2505 (accessed on 8 January 2016).
- SmartSantander. SmartSantander Project. 2015. Available online: http://www.smartsantander.eu (accessed on 8 January 2016).
- CitySenseProject. City Sense Project. 2015. Available online: http://www.citi-sense.eu (accessed on 8 January 2016).
- Gaur, A.; Scotney, B.; Parr, G.; McClean, S. Smart City Architecture and its Applications Based on IoT. Proced. Comput. Sci. 2015, 52, 1089–1094. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lea, R.; Blackstock, M. Smart Cities: An IoT-centric approach. In Proceedings of the Proceedings of the 2014 International Workshop on Web Intelligence and Smart Sensing, Saint Etienne, France, 1–2 September 2014; pp. 1–2.
- X/Open Company Limited. Distributed Transaction Processing: The XA Specification. Technical Report. Available online: http://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009680699/toc.pdf (accessed on 8 January 2016).
- Mietz, R.; Groppe, S.; Oliver Kleine, D.B.; Fischer, S.; Römer, K.; Pfisterer, D. A P2P Semantic Query Framework for the Internet of Things. PIK–Praxis Inform. Kommun. 2013, 36, 73–79. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Groppe, S. Data Management and Query Processing in Semantic Web Databases; Springer Verlag: Heidelberg, Germany, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- RDF Schema. Available online: https://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/ (accessed on 23 March 2016).
- RIF BLD. Available online: https://www.w3.org/TR/rif-bld/ (accessed on 23 March 2016).
- Bocek, T. TomP2P, a P2P-Based Key-Value Pair Storage Library. Available online: http://tomp2p.net/ (accessed on 23 March 2016).
- Kihlgren, M. Chordless|Free System Administration Software Downloads at SourceForge.net. Available online: http://sourceforge.net/projects/chordless/ (accessed on 23 March 2016).
- Vanderplaats, G. Numerical Optimization Techniques for Engineering Design—With Applications; McGraw-Hil: New York, NY, USA, 1984. [Google Scholar]
- Bomze, I.; Grossmann, W. Optimierung—Theorie und Algorithmen; BI Wissenschaftsverlag: Mannheim, Germany, 1993. [Google Scholar]
- Mietz, R.; Groppe, S.; Römer, K.; Pfisterer, D. Semantic Models for Scalable Search in the Internet of Things. J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2013, 2, 172–195. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pfisterer, D.; Römer, K.; Bimschas, D.; Kleine, O.; Mietz, R.; Truong, C.; Hasemann, H.; Kröller, A.; Pagel, M.; Hauswirth, M.; et al. SPITFIRE: Toward a Semantic Web of Things. IEEE Commun. Mag. 2011, 49, 40–48. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wallace, R. Analysis of Heuristic Methods for Partial Constraint Satisfaction Problems; Springer: New York, NY, USA, 1996; pp. 482–496. [Google Scholar]
- OMG. Business Process Model and Notation Version 2.0. 2015. Available online: http://www.omg.org/spec/BPMN/2.0/ (accessed on 4 March 2016).
- W3C. RDF 1.1 Turtle. 2014. Available online: http://www.w3.org/TR/turtle/ (accessed on 4 March 2016).
- W3C. SPARQL Query Language for RDF. 2015. Available online: http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-protocol/ (accessed on 4 March 2016).
- Apache. Apache ActiveMQ. 2015. Available online: http://activemq.apache.org/ (accessed on 4 March 2016).
|Commercial transactions of complex products||Enabling transactions of complex products that fulfill a user-defined context is seen as a core value proposition of a context-centric e-business scenario. For buyers, it means a reduction of transaction costs, less effort in making informed buying decisions, and for providers, gaining higher visibility of their offers related to the user-defined context.|
|Decentralization and scalability||The context-centric e-business scenario should be decentralized in order to alleviate the effects of the growing power of mega-platforms and increase the flexibility of integration for a wider range of different product/service domains.|
|Simplicity of use, integration and management||Existing technologies have to be utilized as a way to obviate the aforementioned adverse selection effects. Therefore, a higher level of automatization has to be reached by providing tools and services for modeling contextual information. For example, these can be well-defined, context-aware service interfaces, ranking possibilities of proposals on the buyer side, as well as dynamic service composition and analytics possibilities on the provider side.|
|Enabling trade in any business domain||Since, to our understanding, complex products can encompass any combination of products (i.e., goods) and/or services, the context-centric business environment has to allow trading of any kind of tradable goods. According to , these can be categorized as physical goods (i.e., tangible goods that are exchanged on a per piece-basis), digital goods (i.e., intangible goods that are exchanged electronically), services (i.e., activities that one peer performs for the other), as well as financial goods (i.e., amounts of money that are transferred between peers). That implies that the underlying value architecture of a context-centric e-business scenario has to be open for any business domain and has to allow cross-domain transactions.|
|Integration of peer economy principles||In order to support the concept of the peer economy (i.e., peer-to-peer or point-to-point economy ), an e-business scenario has to consider the three market design issues, search, pricing and trust, among trading peers . Therefore, a context-centric e-business scenario has to be designed for an effective matching of sellers and buyers while keeping transaction costs low and for an integration of different pricing models. This is considered important particularly for small and medium-sized sellers (SMEs): on the one hand, it allows SMEs to compete with traditional providers of products/services, and on the other, to gain better utilization of price flexibility. Trust and security are also seen as very important, as they often imply the accuracy of providing information and the reliability of the transaction. One important aspect, given the nature of the provided user-context information, is not only to ensure that data are only used for the purpose the user has agreed to, but also to ensure the privacy of context information and the avoidance of unwanted profiling of individuals.|
|,||Native support of complex products||Capability for processing an arbitrary combination of individual products and/or services that need to fulfill particular conditions determined by a user’s context.|
|,||Integration of distributed context information||Capability of considering the user’s context, which can encompass much more information than those related to the decision criteria and include the wider range of relevant information.|
|,||Distributed transactions||Possibility of trading products/services from different suppliers, which are available on one or more marketplaces, in a single enclosing transaction from the user’s point of view.|
|Cross-domain transactions||Possibility of trading products/services from different business-domains in a single enclosing transaction.|
|, ,||Advanced matching||Capability of matching a large number of fragmented, heterogeneous buyers and sellers effectively, keeping transaction costs low.|
|, ,||Advanced ranking||Supporting buyers in making informed decisions by applying a ranking mechanism that considers context-related constraints to create the “best-fit” list of offers.|
|Sophisticated reputation and feedback mechanism||Supporting buyers in making informed decisions by considering sophisticated information about potential trading partners.|
|Flexible price models||Supporting suppliers gaining better utilization or price flexibility.|
© 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution (CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).