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Open AccessArticle

Identifying the Compounds of the Metabolic Elicitors of Pseudomonas fluorescens N 21.4 Responsible for Their Ability to Induce Plant Resistance

1
Plant Physiology Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidad San Pablo-CEU Universities, 28668 Madrid, Spain
2
Centre for Metabolomics and Bioanalyses, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidad San Pablo-CEU Universities, 28668 Madrid, Spain
3
Laboratory of Microbial Ecology, Department of Microbiology, Londrina State University, Londrina 86051-990, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1020; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081020
Received: 11 July 2020 / Revised: 31 July 2020 / Accepted: 8 August 2020 / Published: 12 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Plant–Soil Interactions)
In this work, the metabolic elicitors extracted from the beneficial rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens N 21.4 were sequentially fragmented by vacuum liquid chromatography to isolate, purify and identify the compounds responsible for the extraordinary capacities of this strain to induce systemic resistance and to elicit secondary defensive metabolism in diverse plant species. To check if the fractions sequentially obtained were able to increase the synthesis of isoflavones and if, therefore, they still maintained the eliciting capacity of the live strain, rapid and controlled experiments were done with soybean seeds. The optimal action concentration of the fractions was established and all of them elicited isoflavone secondary metabolism—the fractions that had been extracted with n-hexane being more effective. The purest fraction was the one with the highest eliciting capacity and was also tested in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to induce systemic resistance against the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC 3000. This fraction was then analyzed by UHPLC/ESI–QTOF–MS, and an alkaloid, two amino lipids, three arylalkylamines and a terpenoid were tentatively identified. These identified compounds could be part of commercial plant inoculants of biological and sustainable origin to be applied in crops, due to their potential to enhance the plant immune response and since many of them have putative antibiotic and/or antifungal potential. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pseudomonas fluorescens N 21.4; metabolic elicitors; isoflavone elicitation; induced systemic resistance; sphingolipids; terpenoids Pseudomonas fluorescens N 21.4; metabolic elicitors; isoflavone elicitation; induced systemic resistance; sphingolipids; terpenoids
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Martin-Rivilla, H.; Gutierrez-Mañero, F.J.; Gradillas, A.; P. Navarro, M.O.; Andrade, G.; Lucas, J.A. Identifying the Compounds of the Metabolic Elicitors of Pseudomonas fluorescens N 21.4 Responsible for Their Ability to Induce Plant Resistance. Plants 2020, 9, 1020.

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