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Open AccessArticle

Exploring the Use of Fruit Callus Culture as a Model System to Study Color Development and Cell Wall Remodeling during Strawberry Fruit Ripening

1
Instituto de Hortofruticultura Subtropical y Mediterránea “La Mayora” (IHSM-UMA-CSIC), Departamento de Botánica y Fisiología Vegetal, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga, Spain
2
IFAPA Centro de Málaga, Cortijo de la Cruz s/n, 29140 Málaga, Spain
3
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 1871 Frederiksberg, Denmark
4
Centre for Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(7), 805; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9070805
Received: 8 June 2020 / Revised: 19 June 2020 / Accepted: 24 June 2020 / Published: 27 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Breeding for Fruit Quality)
Cell cultures derived from strawberry fruit at different developmental stages have been obtained to evaluate their potential use to study different aspects of strawberry ripening. Callus from leaf and cortical tissue of unripe-green, white, and mature-red strawberry fruits were induced in a medium supplemented with 11.3 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) under darkness. The transfer of the established callus from darkness to light induced the production of anthocyanin. The replacement of 2,4-D by abscisic acid (ABA) noticeably increased anthocyanin accumulation in green-fruit callus. Cell walls were isolated from the different fruit cell lines and from fruit receptacles at equivalent developmental stages and sequentially fractionated to obtain fractions enriched in soluble pectins, ester bound pectins, xyloglucans (XG), and matrix glycans tightly associated with cellulose microfibrils. These fractions were analyzed by cell wall carbohydrate microarrays. In fruit receptacle samples, pectins were abundant in all fractions, including those enriched in matrix glycans. The amount of pectin increased from green to white stage, and later these carbohydrates were solubilized in red fruit. Apparently, XG content was similar in white and red fruit, but the proportion of galactosylated XG increased in red fruit. Cell wall fractions from callus cultures were enriched in extensin and displayed a minor amount of pectins. Stronger signals of extensin Abs were detected in sodium carbonate fraction, suggesting that these proteins could be linked to pectins. Overall, the results obtained suggest that fruit cell lines could be used to analyze hormonal regulation of color development in strawberry but that the cell wall remodeling process associated with fruit softening might be masked by the high presence of extensin in callus cultures. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbohydrate microarray; callus culture; cell culture; cell wall; extensin; fruit ripening; fruit softening; pectin carbohydrate microarray; callus culture; cell culture; cell wall; extensin; fruit ripening; fruit softening; pectin
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Ric-Varas, P.; Barceló, M.; Rivera, J.A.; Cerezo, S.; Matas, A.J.; Schückel, J.; Knox, J.P.; Posé, S.; Pliego-Alfaro, F.; Mercado, J.A. Exploring the Use of Fruit Callus Culture as a Model System to Study Color Development and Cell Wall Remodeling during Strawberry Fruit Ripening. Plants 2020, 9, 805.

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