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Open AccessArticle

Polyphenolic Composition and Anti-Melanoma Activity of White Forsythia (Abeliophyllum distichum Nakai) Organ Extracts

1
Department of Industrial Plant Science and Technology, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea
2
College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, SARI, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(6), 757; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9060757
Received: 6 April 2020 / Revised: 15 June 2020 / Accepted: 15 June 2020 / Published: 17 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants)
Abeliophyllum distichum Nakai, commonly called white forsythia, is a monotypic genus endemic to Korea. Although A. distichum is mainly used as an ornamental plant because of its horticultural value, recent studies have demonstrated its bioactivities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, prompting us to investigate the potential anticancer effect of A. distichum organ extracts (leaves, fruit, and branches) against human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells. The methanol extract of A. distichum leaves (AL) exhibited dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicities against SK-MEL-2 cells but not against HDFa human dermal fibroblasts. Based on high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, we identified 18 polyphenolic compounds from A. distichum organ extracts and suggest that differences in anticancer activity between organ extracts should be caused by different compositions of polyphenolic compounds. Additionally, the Annexin V/propidium iodide staining assay and analysis of caspase activity and expression indicated that AL induced cell death, including early and late apoptosis, as well as necrosis, by inducing the extrinsic pathway. Furthermore, we analyzed the differentially expressed genes between mock- and AL-treated cells using RNA-seq technology, suggesting that the anti-melanoma action of AL is mediated by down-regulation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Taken together, these results shed light on the potential use of A. distichum as a green resource with potent anti-melanoma activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: Abeliophyllum distichum; anti-melanoma; apoptosis; differentially expressed gene; polyphenolic compound Abeliophyllum distichum; anti-melanoma; apoptosis; differentially expressed gene; polyphenolic compound
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Yoo, T.-K.; Kim, J.-S.; Hyun, T.K. Polyphenolic Composition and Anti-Melanoma Activity of White Forsythia (Abeliophyllum distichum Nakai) Organ Extracts. Plants 2020, 9, 757.

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