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Open AccessArticle

Why Does the Halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Better Tolerate Ni Toxicity than Brassica juncea: Implication of Antioxidant Defense Systems

1
Laboratoire des PlantesExtrêmophiles, Centre de Biotechnologie de Borj-Cédria, BP 901, Hammam-lif 2050, Tunisia
2
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, UniversitàdegliStudi di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy
3
Groupe de Recherche enPhysiologieVégétale (GRPV), Earth and Life Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
4
Higher Institute of Arts and Crafts of Tataouine, University of Gabes Erriadh City, Zrig-Gabes 6072, Tunisia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(3), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9030312
Received: 15 December 2019 / Revised: 11 February 2020 / Accepted: 19 February 2020 / Published: 2 March 2020
The implication of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative systems in response to Ni was evaluated in the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum in comparison with the metal tolerant glycophyte species Brassica juncea. Seedlings of both species were hydroponically subjected during 21 days to 0, 25, 50, and 100 µM NiCl2. Growth parameters showed that the halophyte M. crystallinum was more tolerant to Ni than B. juncea. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased to a higher extent in B. juncea than in M. crystallinum. Antioxidant enzymesactivities were differently affected by Ni in both species. Nickel increased shoot superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities in B. juncea, whereas these activities were reduced in M. crystallinum when exposed to metal stress. The root SOD, APX and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) activities increased upon Ni treatments for both species. The content of non-enzymatic antioxidative molecules such as glutathione, non-protein thiols and proline increased in Ni-treated plants, except for GSH content in the shoot of B. juncea. Based on the oxidative balance, our findings confirm the higher tolerance of the halophyte M. crystallinum to Ni-induced oxidative stress comparatively to B. juncea. We suggest that M. crystallinum is able to overcome the produced ROS using the non-enzymatic system, while Ni-induced oxidative stress was more acute in B. juncea, leading this species to mainly use the enzymatic system to protect against reactive oxygen species. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant systems; glycophyte; halophyte; nickel stress; phytoremediation antioxidant systems; glycophyte; halophyte; nickel stress; phytoremediation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Amari, T.; Souid, A.; Ghabriche, R.; Porrini, M.; Lutts, S.; Sacchi, G.A.; Abdelly, C.; Ghnaya, T. Why Does the Halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Better Tolerate Ni Toxicity than Brassica juncea: Implication of Antioxidant Defense Systems. Plants 2020, 9, 312.

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