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Review

Research Trends and Methodological Approaches of the Impacts of Windstorms on Forests in Tropical, Subtropical, and Temperate Zones: Where Are We Now and How Should Research Move Forward?

1
Department of Environment and Forest Resources, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea
2
Department of Forest Biological Sciences, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna 4031, Philippines
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(12), 1709; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9121709
Received: 6 November 2020 / Revised: 25 November 2020 / Accepted: 2 December 2020 / Published: 4 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Forest Environment and Ecology)
Windstorm is one of the destructive natural disturbances, but the scale-link extent to which recurrent windstorms influenced forests ecosystems is poorly understood in a changing climate across regions. We reviewed the synergistic impacts of windstorms on forests and assessed research trends and methodological approaches from peer-reviewed articles published from 2000 to 2020 in tropical (TRF), subtropical (SUF), and temperate (TEF) forests/zones, based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Overall, the majority of the reviewed studies were conducted in TRF (i.e., 40%), intermediate in SUF (i.e., 34%), and the lowest in TEF (i.e., 26%). Among the four levels of biological organization, the species-population and community-ecosystem levels had the highest number of study cases, while the molecular-cellular-individual and landscape levels had the lowest study cases in all forest types. Most of the articles reviewed dealt largely on tree mortality/survival and regeneration/succession for TRF, tree mortality/survival and species composition/richness/diversity for SUF, and stem density, gap dynamics, and regeneration/succession for TEF. However, research on the effects of windstorms on mycorrhizal symbioses, population genetics, and physiological adaptation, element fluxes via litterfall, litter decomposition, belowground processes, biological invasion, and tree health are less common in all forest types. Further, most of the studies were conducted in permanent plots but these studies mostly used observational design, while controlled studies are obviously limited. Consequently, more observational and controlled studies are needed on the topic reviewed, particularly studies at the molecular-cellular-individual and landscape levels, to help inform forest management decision-making about developing sustainable and resilient forests amid climate change. View Full-Text
Keywords: experimental forest; hurricane; observational study; PRISMA; systematic review article; tree mortality; tropical cyclones; typhoon; wind throw experimental forest; hurricane; observational study; PRISMA; systematic review article; tree mortality; tropical cyclones; typhoon; wind throw
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hernandez, J.O.; Maldia, L.S.J.; Park, B.B. Research Trends and Methodological Approaches of the Impacts of Windstorms on Forests in Tropical, Subtropical, and Temperate Zones: Where Are We Now and How Should Research Move Forward? Plants 2020, 9, 1709. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9121709

AMA Style

Hernandez JO, Maldia LSJ, Park BB. Research Trends and Methodological Approaches of the Impacts of Windstorms on Forests in Tropical, Subtropical, and Temperate Zones: Where Are We Now and How Should Research Move Forward? Plants. 2020; 9(12):1709. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9121709

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hernandez, Jonathan O., Lerma S.J. Maldia, and Byung B. Park. 2020. "Research Trends and Methodological Approaches of the Impacts of Windstorms on Forests in Tropical, Subtropical, and Temperate Zones: Where Are We Now and How Should Research Move Forward?" Plants 9, no. 12: 1709. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9121709

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