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Article

The Fungicide Tetramethylthiuram Disulfide Negatively Affects Plant Cell Walls, Infection Thread Walls, and Symbiosomes in Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Symbiotic Nodules

1
Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Biology, All-Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology, 196608 Saint Petersburg, Russia
2
Research Resource Centre “Molecular and Cell Technologies”, Saint Petersburg State University, 199034 Saint Petersburg, Russia
3
Saint Petersburg Scientific Center RAS, 199034 Saint Petersburg, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(11), 1488; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9111488
Received: 29 August 2020 / Revised: 21 October 2020 / Accepted: 3 November 2020 / Published: 4 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pea-Rhizobial and Pea-Mycorrhizal Symbioses)
In Russia, tetramethylthiuram disulfide (TMTD) is a fungicide widely used in the cultivation of legumes, including the pea (Pisum sativum). Application of TMTD can negatively affect nodulation; nevertheless, its effect on the histological and ultrastructural organization of nodules has not previously been investigated. In this study, the effect of TMTD at three concentrations (0.4, 4, and 8 g/kg) on nodule development in three pea genotypes (laboratory lines Sprint-2 and SGE, and cultivar ‘Finale’) was examined. In SGE, TMTD at 0.4 g/kg reduced the nodule number and shoot and root fresh weights. Treatment with TMTD at 8 g/kg changed the nodule color from pink to green, indicative of nodule senescence. Light and transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed negative effects of TMTD on nodule structure in each genotype. ‘Finale’ was the most sensitive cultivar to TMTD and Sprint-2 was the most tolerant. The negative effects of TMTD on nodules included the appearance of a senescence zone, starch accumulation, swelling of cell walls accompanied by a loss of electron density, thickening of the infection thread walls, symbiosome fusion, and bacteroid degradation. These results demonstrate how TMTD adversely affects nodules in the pea and will be useful for developing strategies to optimize fungicide use on legume crops. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pisum sativum L.; symbiotic nodule; infection thread; symbiosome; bacteroid; cell wall; fungicide Pisum sativum L.; symbiotic nodule; infection thread; symbiosome; bacteroid; cell wall; fungicide
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gorshkov, A.P.; Tsyganova, A.V.; Vorobiev, M.G.; Tsyganov, V.E. The Fungicide Tetramethylthiuram Disulfide Negatively Affects Plant Cell Walls, Infection Thread Walls, and Symbiosomes in Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Symbiotic Nodules. Plants 2020, 9, 1488. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9111488

AMA Style

Gorshkov AP, Tsyganova AV, Vorobiev MG, Tsyganov VE. The Fungicide Tetramethylthiuram Disulfide Negatively Affects Plant Cell Walls, Infection Thread Walls, and Symbiosomes in Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Symbiotic Nodules. Plants. 2020; 9(11):1488. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9111488

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gorshkov, Artemii P., Anna V. Tsyganova, Maxim G. Vorobiev, and Viktor E. Tsyganov. 2020. "The Fungicide Tetramethylthiuram Disulfide Negatively Affects Plant Cell Walls, Infection Thread Walls, and Symbiosomes in Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Symbiotic Nodules" Plants 9, no. 11: 1488. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9111488

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