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Open AccessArticle

Studying the Influence of Apple Peel Polyphenol Extract Fortification on the Characteristics of Probiotic Yoghurt

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Department of Dairy Technology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
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Department of Animal Nutrition, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
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Department of Livestock Production, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
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Food and Biotechnology Research Centre, Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
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Department of Agriculture and Food Technology, Karakoram International University, Gilgit 15100, Pakistan
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Department of Food Sciences, Faculty of Biosciences, Cholistan University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
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University Institute of Diet and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, The University of Lahore, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
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University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Sub-Campus Burewala, Vehari 61100, Pakistan
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Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Vehari Campus 61100, Pakistan
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Department of Biosciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Park Road, Tarlai Kalan, Islamabad 45550, Pakistan
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Department of Food Science and Technology, MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan 66000, Pakistan
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Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad, Punjab 38000, Pakistan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(1), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010077
Received: 26 November 2019 / Revised: 29 December 2019 / Accepted: 2 January 2020 / Published: 7 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemistry)
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of apple peel polyphenol extract (APPE) on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of probiotic yoghurt. Five concentrations of APPE were added in probiotic yoghurt as: (1) CTL, control without APPE; (2) AE1, addition of 1% APPE; (3) AE2, addition of 2% APPE; (4) AE3, addition of 3% APPE; (5) AE4, addition of 4% APPE; and (6) AE5, addition of 5% APPE. The prepared probiotic yoghurt was stored at 4 °C for 21 days and analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological properties. The initial viable count of L. bulgaricus, S. thermophilus, B. lactis and L. acidophilus were similar in all yoghurt samples at day 1. The maximum viability loss of probiotics was observed in CTL (p < 0.05). The lowest viability loss of probiotics was observed in AE5 samples (p < 0.05). The acidity, water holding capacity and viscosity were increased with the addition of APPE. No significant effects were observed on milk fat and total solid contents of probiotic yoghurt with the addition of APPE. The total phenolic contents of probiotic yoghurt increased significantly as 0.59, 0.71, 0.97, 1.18, 1.35 in AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 and AE5, samples respectively. It was observed that AE3 and AE4 samples had better taste, flavour and colour with good texture. The survival of probiotics and antioxidant activity of the yoghurts were enhanced with the addition of APPE. In conclusion, apple peels could be successfully used as prebiotic in yoghurt with increased viable counts of probiotics. View Full-Text
Keywords: by-product; yoghurt; viability; bioactive; viscosity; pulp by-product; yoghurt; viability; bioactive; viscosity; pulp
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Ahmad, I.; Khalique, A.; Shahid, M.Q.; Ahid Rashid, A.; Faiz, F.; Ikram, M.A.; Ahmed, S.; Imran, M.; Khan, M.A.; Nadeem, M.; Afzal, M.I.; Umer, M.; Kaleem, I.; Shahbaz, M.; Rasool, B. Studying the Influence of Apple Peel Polyphenol Extract Fortification on the Characteristics of Probiotic Yoghurt. Plants 2020, 9, 77.

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