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Reiterative Mechanisms of Retinoic Acid Signaling during Vertebrate Heart Development

by Eliyahu Perl 1,2,3 and Joshua S. Waxman 3,4,5,*
1
Molecular and Developmental Biology Graduate Program, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA
2
Medical Scientist Training Program, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA
3
The Heart Institute and Division of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
4
Division of Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
5
Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Dev. Biol. 2019, 7(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb7020011
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 25 May 2019 / Accepted: 28 May 2019 / Published: 30 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retinoids in Development 2019)
Tightly-regulated levels of retinoic acid (RA) are critical for promoting normal vertebrate development. The extensive history of research on RA has shown that its proper regulation is essential for cardiac progenitor specification and organogenesis. Here, we discuss the roles of RA signaling and its establishment of networks that drive both early and later steps of normal vertebrate heart development. We focus on studies that highlight the drastic effects alternative levels of RA have on early cardiomyocyte (CM) specification and cardiac chamber morphogenesis, consequences of improper RA synthesis and degradation, and known effectors downstream of RA. We conclude with the implications of these findings to our understanding of cardiac regeneration and the etiologies of congenital heart defects. View Full-Text
Keywords: retinoic acid; heart development; cardiac progenitors; transcriptional regulation; patterning; morphogen; teratogenesis retinoic acid; heart development; cardiac progenitors; transcriptional regulation; patterning; morphogen; teratogenesis
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Perl, E.; Waxman, J.S. Reiterative Mechanisms of Retinoic Acid Signaling during Vertebrate Heart Development. J. Dev. Biol. 2019, 7, 11.

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