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Crosstalk of Intercellular Signaling Pathways in the Generation of Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons In Vivo and from Stem Cells

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Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Zlotowski Center for Neuroscience, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be’er Sheva 84105, Israel
2
Institute of Reconstructive Neurobiology, University of Bonn Medical Center, 53127 Bonn, Germany
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Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, FIN00014-University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, Viikinkaari 9, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland
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Department Hamm 2, Hamm-Lippstadt University of Applied Sciences, 59063 Hamm, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Dev. Biol. 2019, 7(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb7010003
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
Dopamine-synthesizing neurons located in the mammalian ventral midbrain are at the center stage of biomedical research due to their involvement in severe human neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, most prominently Parkinson’s Disease (PD). The induction of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons depends on two important signaling centers of the mammalian embryo: the ventral midline or floor plate (FP) of the neural tube, and the isthmic organizer (IsO) at the mid-/hindbrain boundary (MHB). Cells located within and close to the FP secrete sonic hedgehog (SHH), and members of the wingless-type MMTV integration site family (WNT1/5A), as well as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family. The IsO cells secrete WNT1 and the fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8). Accordingly, the FGF8, SHH, WNT, and BMP signaling pathways play crucial roles during the development of the mDA neurons in the mammalian embryo. Moreover, these morphogens are essential for the generation of stem cell-derived mDA neurons, which are critical for the modeling, drug screening, and cell replacement therapy of PD. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the functions and crosstalk of these signaling pathways in mammalian mDA neuron development in vivo and their applications in stem cell-based paradigms for the efficient derivation of these neurons in vitro. View Full-Text
Keywords: dopamine; neuron; FGF8; SHH; WNT; BMP; Parkinson’s disease; pluripotent stem cells; iPSC dopamine; neuron; FGF8; SHH; WNT; BMP; Parkinson’s disease; pluripotent stem cells; iPSC
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Brodski, C.; Blaess, S.; Partanen, J.; Prakash, N. Crosstalk of Intercellular Signaling Pathways in the Generation of Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons In Vivo and from Stem Cells. J. Dev. Biol. 2019, 7, 3.

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