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Open AccessArticle

Deep Learning for Fingerprint Localization in Indoor and Outdoor Environments

by Da Li 1,2,*,†, Yingke Lei 1,2,†, Xin Li 1 and Haichuan Zhang 1
College of Electronic Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Hefei 230000, China
Science and Technology on Communication Information Security Control Laboratory, Jiaxing 314000, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The authors wish it to be known that, in their opinion, the first two authors should be regarded as joint First Authors.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(4), 267;
Received: 16 February 2020 / Revised: 3 April 2020 / Accepted: 15 April 2020 / Published: 20 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Learning for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM))
Wi-Fi and magnetic field fingerprinting-based localization have gained increased attention owing to their satisfactory accuracy and global availability. The common signal-based fingerprint localization deteriorates due to well-known signal fluctuations. In this paper, we proposed a Wi-Fi and magnetic field-based localization system based on deep learning. Owing to the low discernibility of magnetic field strength (MFS) in large areas, the unsupervised learning density peak clustering algorithm based on the comparison distance (CDPC) algorithm is first used to pick up several center points of MFS as the geotagged features to assist localization. Considering the state-of-the-art application of deep learning in image classification, we design a location fingerprint image using Wi-Fi and magnetic field fingerprints for localization. Localization is casted in a proposed deep residual network (Resnet) that is capable of learning key features from a massive fingerprint image database. To further enhance localization accuracy, by leveraging the prior information of the pre-trained Resnet coarse localizer, an MLP-based transfer learning fine localizer is introduced to fine-tune the coarse localizer. Additionally, we dynamically adjusted the learning rate (LR) and adopted several data enhancement methods to increase the robustness of our localization system. Experimental results show that the proposed system leads to satisfactory localization performance both in indoor and outdoor environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: fingerprint localization; deep learning; Wi-Fi signal; magnetic field; unsupervised learning fingerprint localization; deep learning; Wi-Fi signal; magnetic field; unsupervised learning
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Li, D.; Lei, Y.; Li, X.; Zhang, H. Deep Learning for Fingerprint Localization in Indoor and Outdoor Environments. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9, 267.

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