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Open AccessArticle

An Efficient Indoor Wi-Fi Positioning Method Using Virtual Location of AP

by Fan Xu 1, Xuke Hu 2,3, Shuaiwei Luo 1,4,* and Jianga Shang 1
School of Geography and Information Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430078, China
Institute of Data Science, DLR, 07745 Jena, Germany
GIScience Research Group, Institute of Geography, Heidelberg University, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
College of Tourism and Planning, Pingdingshan University, Pingdingshan 467000, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(4), 261;
Received: 19 February 2020 / Revised: 9 April 2020 / Accepted: 16 April 2020 / Published: 19 April 2020
Wi-Fi fingerprinting has been widely used for indoor localization because of its good cost-effectiveness. However, it suffers from relatively low localization accuracy and robustness owing to the signal fluctuations. Virtual Access Points (VAP) can effectively reduce the impact of signal fluctuation problem in Wi-Fi fingerprinting. Current techniques normally use the Log-Normal Shadowing Model to estimate the virtual location of the access point. This would lead to inaccurate location estimation due to the signal attenuation factor in the model, which is difficult to be determined. To overcome this challenge, in this study, we propose a novel approach to calculating the virtual location of the access points by using the Apollonius Circle theory, specifically the distance ratio, which can eliminate the attenuation parameter term in the original model. This is based on the assumption that neighboring locations share the same attenuation parameter corresponding to the signal attenuation caused by obstacles. We evaluated the proposed method in a laboratory building with three different kinds of scenes and 1194 test points in total. The experimental results show that the proposed approach can improve the accuracy and robustness of the Wi-Fi fingerprinting techniques and achieve state-of-art performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: indoor positioning; Wi-Fi fingerprinting; virtual AP; Apollonius circle indoor positioning; Wi-Fi fingerprinting; virtual AP; Apollonius circle
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Xu, F.; Hu, X.; Luo, S.; Shang, J. An Efficient Indoor Wi-Fi Positioning Method Using Virtual Location of AP. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9, 261.

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