- freely available
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(5), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7050191
2. Supporting Methods for Maintenance Operations: Literature Review
2.1. CAFM Systems and BIM
2.2. BIM-Based Facility Management Supporting Methods
3. Research Methodology
4. End-User Integration and Coordinated BIM-GIS Technologies to Support Management and Maintenance Operations
4.1. Indoor Localisation Systems for Fault Messages
- Real Estate central building information model, structured for the facility management scopes.
- Real Estate cloud models.
- Indoor localization systems for user localization.
4.2. Structure of the System
5. Implementation and Validation through a Case Study
5.1. BIM Model of the Real Estate Case Study, for Management and Maintenance Scope
- identification data: as the code, type, model, description, maintenance company information;
- technical data: obtained from the technical sheets. This information is useful to complete the component identification and to control the required data in the case of component replacement;
- maintenance data: dates of maintenance visits and deadlines, schedules, maintenance contracts, instructions video URL. This data is useful for the maintenance operators during the work.
5.2. Application Results on Corrective Maintenance
- 9 beacons for the church;
- 10 beacons in the manse;
- 36 beacons in the oratory;
- 6 beacons in the school.
5.3. Academic and Practical Contributions
- The integration of BIM and indoor localization systems that are managed through a central digital environment allows the identification of every element of an asset in a digital environment without requiring a prior mapping.
- No mapping systems are required for reducing maintenance efforts.
- The use of a standardized data structure, inherently defined by the system, allows the update of future data analysis that are still undervalued.
- The integration of standardized information in a BIM-GIS environment allows quantitative analysis for distributed assets.
- Integrating data in a BIM-GIS logic can improve the supply chain management processes.
- In the proposed framework, the end users are not required to use complex systems and/or instruments to identify faults. This principle improves the usability of the system in comparison with Case 1 and it is aligned with the methodology applied in the case of QR codes (Case 2).
- Compared to Case 1, the proposed framework allows the localization of the elements in an integrated system facilitating the identification of the faults.
- Compared to Case 2, the proposed framework allows the localization and management of every element of the building. The only requirement is the introduction of the element in the building information model. This peculiarity allows the management of wide building elements such as walls and floors. In fact, the application of QR codes on wide building elements can pose several issues, namely the definition of the number of QR codes on a specific element that can present different characteristics in different points (e.g., layers, thickness, materials) and the correct identification of localized damages on the specific element. Through the proposed framework, both the above-mentioned issues are overcome.
- Furthermore, in the case of changes in the building (e.g., the introduction of a new element) the use of QR codes (Case 2) requires the definition of a new QR code, its introduction in the digital system and the physical application of the QR code on the element. The proposed framework requires only the introduction of the new element in the building information model to allow its identification and the consequent activation of the process.
- In comparison with Case 3, all the elements can be identified including both the one connected to the grid and the physical one such as windows, doors, and walls.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Case 1:||Central building information model for the facility manager and cloud building information model for the end users and maintenance staff.||BIM cloud applications for the visualization of building information models are used both for failure communications from the end-users and consultation during the operations for the maintenance operators. A unique technology used during all the maintenance process from the failure report until the end of the maintenance work [34,35].|
|Case 2:||QR code mapping linked with building information models and DBMS.||Building components are mapped with barcode tags; end-users can communicate a failure scanning barcodes. A central building information model connected with a DBMS manages the failure reports and archives maintenance data.|
Identification data about components is directly stored in barcodes .
|Case 3:||BMS combined with building information models.||Systems and spaces are equipped with sensors capable of monitor functioning status and environmental conditions. The connection between BMS and building information models combines precision of field data acquisition and 3D localization [35,43].|
|Sol. 1||Infrared technologies||Emitter with fixed position in the room, which is associated with a unique ID and signal receiver.|
|Sol. 2||RFID||Based on localization through radio frequencies.|
|Sol. 3||Wi-Fi fingerprint||It is part of the localization techniques based on Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI).|
Access point return the position of an antenna device.
|Sol. 4||Ultrasound||Used as counting sensors, it is based on ultrasonic emissions and triangulation of lens transducers, which locate the persons’ position.|
|Sol. 5||Bluetooth (beacons)||Infrastructure availability because Bluetooth is integrated into common smartphones. IOS and Android compatible hardware. They work with long lasting batteries; not invasive, they can be positioned everywhere.|
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