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Open AccessArticle

Characterizing 3D City Modeling Projects: Towards a Harmonized Interoperable System

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Aalto University School of Engineering, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland
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Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, FI-02430 Masala, Finland
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Center for Ubiquitous Computing, University of Oulu, Erkki Koiso-Kanttilankatu 3, Door E, P.O. Box 4500, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020055
Received: 8 December 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
3D city models have become common geospatial data assets for cities that can be utilized in numerous fields, in tasks related to planning, visualization, and decision-making among others. We present a study of 3D city modeling focusing on the six largest cities in Finland. The study portrays a contradiction between the realized 3D city modeling projects and the expectations towards them: models do not appear to reach the broad applicability envisioned. In order to deal with contradiction and to support the development of future 3D city models, characteristics of different operational cultures in 3D city modeling are presented, and a concept for harmonizing the 3D city modeling is suggested. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D city modeling; 3D GIS; 3D geoinformation; interoperability; socio-technical system 3D city modeling; 3D GIS; 3D geoinformation; interoperability; socio-technical system
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Julin, A.; Jaalama, K.; Virtanen, J.-P.; Pouke, M.; Ylipulli, J.; Vaaja, M.; Hyyppä, J.; Hyyppä, H. Characterizing 3D City Modeling Projects: Towards a Harmonized Interoperable System. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7, 55.

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