Next Article in Journal
Can Hawaii Meet Its Renewable Fuel Target? Case Study of Banagrass-Based Cellulosic Ethanol
Next Article in Special Issue
Integrating Multiple Spatial Datasets to Assess Protected Areas: Lessons Learnt from the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA)
Previous Article in Journal
Continuous Road Network Generalization throughout All Scales
Previous Article in Special Issue
Improved Biogeography-Based Optimization Based on Affinity Propagation
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Methodology for Evaluating the Quality of Ecosystem Maps: A Case Study in the Andes

Laboratorio de Ecología del Paisaje y Modelación de Ecosistemas ECOLMOD, Departamento de Biología, Edificio 421, Oficina 223, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá 111321, Colombia
Infometrika Ltda, Carrera 7 # 16-56 Ofi. 804. Edificio Calle Real, Bogotá 110321, Colombia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Wolfgang Kainz
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(8), 144;
Received: 17 June 2016 / Revised: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 8 August 2016 / Published: 15 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Ecology)
PDF [7517 KB, uploaded 15 August 2016]


Uncertainty in thematic maps has been tested mainly in maps with discrete or fuzzy classifications based on spectral data. However, many ecosystem maps in tropical countries consist of discrete polygons containing information on various ecosystem properties such as vegetation cover, soil, climate, geomorphology and biodiversity. The combination of these properties into one class leads to error. We propose a probability-based sampling design with two domains, multiple stages, and stratification with selection of primary sampling units (PSUs) proportional to the richness of strata present. Validation is undertaken through field visits and fine resolution remote sensing data. A pilot site in the center of the Colombian Andes was chosen to validate a government official ecosystem map. Twenty primary sampling units (PSUs) of 10 × 15 km were selected, and the final numbers of final sampling units (FSUs) were 76 for the terrestrial domain and 46 for the aquatic domain. Our results showed a confidence level of 95%, with the accuracy in the terrestrial domain varying between 51.8% and 64.3% and in the aquatic domain varying between 75% and 92%. Governments need to account for uncertainty since they rely on the quality of these maps to make decisions and guide policies. View Full-Text
Keywords: ecosystem mapping; remote sensing; uncertainty; field validation ecosystem mapping; remote sensing; uncertainty; field validation

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Armenteras, D.; González, T.M.; Luque, F.J.; López, D.; Rodríguez, N. Methodology for Evaluating the Quality of Ecosystem Maps: A Case Study in the Andes. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5, 144.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. EISSN 2220-9964 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top