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Robotics 2019, 8(1), 21;

Using the Engagement Profile to Design an Engaging Robotic Teaching Assistant for Students

Department of Intelligent Systems and Digital Design, School of Information Technology, Halmstad University, 301 18 Halmstad, Sweden
Norsk Regnesentral, 0373 Oslo, Norway
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 February 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 10 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
PDF [3616 KB, uploaded 29 March 2019]


We report on an exploratory study conducted at a graduate school in Sweden with a humanoid robot, Baxter. First, we describe a list of potentially useful capabilities for a robot teaching assistant derived from brainstorming and interviews with faculty members, teachers, and students. These capabilities consist of reading educational materials out loud, greeting, alerting, allowing remote operation, providing clarifications, and moving to carry out physical tasks. Secondly, we present feedback on how the robot’s capabilities, demonstrated in part with the Wizard of Oz approach, were perceived, and iteratively adapted over the course of several lectures, using the Engagement Profile tool. Thirdly, we discuss observations regarding the capabilities and the development process. Our findings suggest that using a social robot as a teaching assistant is promising using the chosen capabilities and Engagement Profile tool. We find that enhancing the robot’s autonomous capabilities and further investigating the role of embodiment are some important topics to be considered in future work. View Full-Text
Keywords: robot; robotic teaching assistant; teaching; user engagement; evaluation robot; robotic teaching assistant; teaching; user engagement; evaluation

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Cooney, M.; Leister, W. Using the Engagement Profile to Design an Engaging Robotic Teaching Assistant for Students. Robotics 2019, 8, 21.

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