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Creatine for the Treatment of Depression

Diagnostic Neuroimaging, Department of Psychiatry, University of Utah, 383 Colorow Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, USA
George E. Wahlen Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 500 Foothill Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84148, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(9), 406;
Received: 31 July 2019 / Revised: 19 August 2019 / Accepted: 21 August 2019 / Published: 23 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Creatine as a Therapeutic Strategy)
Depressed mood, which can occur in the context of major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and other conditions, represents a serious threat to public health and wellness. Conventional treatments are not effective for a significant proportion of patients and interventions that are often beneficial for treatment-refractory depression are not widely available. There is, therefore, an immense need to identify novel antidepressant strategies, particularly strategies that target physiological pathways that are distinct from those addressed by conventional treatments. There is growing evidence from human neuroimaging, genetics, epidemiology, and animal studies that disruptions in brain energy production, storage, and utilization are implicated in the development and maintenance of depression. Creatine, a widely available nutritional supplement, has the potential to improve these disruptions in some patients, and early clinical trials indicate that it may have efficacy as an antidepressant agent. View Full-Text
Keywords: major depressive disorder; bipolar disorder; creatine; phosphocreatine major depressive disorder; bipolar disorder; creatine; phosphocreatine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kious, B.M.; Kondo, D.G.; Renshaw, P.F. Creatine for the Treatment of Depression. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 406.

AMA Style

Kious BM, Kondo DG, Renshaw PF. Creatine for the Treatment of Depression. Biomolecules. 2019; 9(9):406.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kious, Brent M., Douglas G. Kondo, and Perry F. Renshaw 2019. "Creatine for the Treatment of Depression" Biomolecules 9, no. 9: 406.

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