Screening for systolic heart failure (SHF) has been problematic. Heart failure management guidelines suggest screening for structural heart disease and SHF prevention strategies should be a top priority. We developed a multi-protein biomarker panel using saliva as a diagnostic medium to discriminate SHF patients and healthy controls. We collected saliva samples from healthy controls (n = 88) and from SHF patients (n = 100). We developed enzyme linked immunosorbent assays to quantify three specific proteins/peptide (Kallikrein-1, Protein S100-A7, and Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide) in saliva samples. The analytical and clinical performances and predictive value of the proteins were evaluated. The analytical performances of the immunoassays were all within acceptable analytical ranges. The multi-protein panel was able to significantly (p
< 0.001) discriminate saliva samples collected from patients with SHF from controls. The multi-protein panel demonstrated good performance with an overall diagnostic accuracy of 81.6% (sensitivity of 79.2% and specificity of 85.7%) when distinguishing SHF patients from healthy individuals. In conclusion, we have developed immunoassays to measure the salivary concentrations of three proteins combined as a panel to accurately distinguish SHF patients from healthy controls. While this requires confirmation in larger cohorts, our findings suggest that this three-protein panel has the potential to be used as a biomarker for early detection of SHF.
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