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Open AccessArticle

Pyrraline Formation Modulated by Sodium Chloride and Controlled by Encapsulation with Different Coating Materials in the Maillard Reaction

1
School of Food Science, Guangdong Food and Drug Vocational College, Guangzhou 510520, China
2
Engineering Research Center of Health Food Design & Nutrition Regulation, School of Chemical Engineering and Energy Technology, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan 523808, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(11), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9110721 (registering DOI)
Received: 13 October 2019 / Revised: 3 November 2019 / Accepted: 7 November 2019 / Published: 10 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Biology)
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are present in heat-processed foods, have been associated with several chronic diseases. Sodium chloride (NaCl) modulates the formation of furfurals and acrylamide in the Maillard reaction; however, the effects of NaCl on AGE formation are inconsistent. In this study, we investigated the effects of NaCl on pyrraline formation using glucose-lysine model systems. NaCl, especially at 0.50%, promoted Maillard browning and pyrraline formation, with a simultaneous increase in the 3-deoxyglucosone concentration. To reduce the rate of pyrraline formation, NaCl coated with different gums and starches were used. The results showed that NaCl encapsulation is an effective approach to mitigate pyrraline and 3-deoxyglucosone formation. The content of NaCl in the microparticles were 284 ± 12, 269 ± 6, 258 ± 8, 247 ± 10, 273 ± 16, and 288 ± 15 mg/g (coated with waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, HYLON VII high amylose maize starch, gelatinized resistant starch, xanthan gum, and gum arabic, respectively). The heat resistance of the coating material was negatively correlated with the pyrraline and 3-deoxyglucosone formation, whereas the solubility of the coating material had the opposite results. Coating the material with gum had little effects on the reduction of pyrraline and 3-deoxyglucosone.
Keywords: encapsulation; sodium chloride; advanced glycation end products; starch; gum encapsulation; sodium chloride; advanced glycation end products; starch; gum
MDPI and ACS Style

Liang, Z.; Chen, X.; Yang, Z.; Lai, Y.; Yang, Y.; Lei, C.; Zeng, Y. Pyrraline Formation Modulated by Sodium Chloride and Controlled by Encapsulation with Different Coating Materials in the Maillard Reaction. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 721.

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