Next Article in Journal
The Loop of the TPR1 Subdomain of Phi29 DNA Polymerase Plays a Pivotal Role in Primer-Terminus Stabilization at the Polymerization Active Site
Previous Article in Journal
Anthocyanins from Hibiscus syriacus L. Inhibit Melanogenesis by Activating the ERK Signaling Pathway
Open AccessArticle

Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals the Roles of Detoxification Systems in Response to Mercury in Chromera velia

1
Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
2
Genetic Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11241, Egypt
3
Institute of Biosciences and Bioresources (IBBR), National Research Council (CNR) of Italy, 90129 Palermo, Italy
4
Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(11), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9110647
Received: 3 September 2019 / Revised: 15 October 2019 / Accepted: 18 October 2019 / Published: 24 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Biology)
Heavy metal pollution is an increasing global concern. Among heavy metals, mercury (Hg) is especially dangerous because of its massive release into the environment and high toxicity, especially for aquatic organisms. The molecular response mechanisms of algae to Hg exposure are mostly unknown. Here, we combine physiological, biochemical, and transcriptomic analysis to provide, for the first time, a comprehensive view on the pathways activated in Chromera velia in response to toxic levels of Hg. Production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion, two reactive oxygen species (ROS), showed opposite patterns in response to Hg2+ while reactive nitrogen species (RNS) levels did not change. A deep RNA sequencing analysis generated a total of 307,738,790 high-quality reads assembled in 122,874 transcripts, representing 89,853 unigenes successfully annotated in databases. Detailed analysis of the differently expressed genes corroborates the biochemical results observed in ROS production and suggests novel putative molecular mechanisms in the algal response to Hg2+. Moreover, we indicated that important transcription factor (TF) families associated with stress responses differentially expressed in C. velia cultures under Hg stress. Our study presents the first in-depth transcriptomic analysis of C. velia, focusing on the expression of genes involved in different detoxification defense systems in response to heavy metal stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: chromerids; transcriptome; heavy metal; antioxidant enzymes; xenobiotics; phylogenies; reactive oxygen species; reactive nitrogen species chromerids; transcriptome; heavy metal; antioxidant enzymes; xenobiotics; phylogenies; reactive oxygen species; reactive nitrogen species
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Sharaf, A.; De Michele, R.; Sharma, A.; Fakhari, S.; Oborník, M. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals the Roles of Detoxification Systems in Response to Mercury in Chromera velia. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 647.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop