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Open AccessArticle

The Antifungal Effect of Garlic Essential Oil on Phytophthora nicotianae and the Inhibitory Component Involved

1
Marine Agriculture Research Center, Tobacco Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qingdao 266101, China
2
Biological Organic Fertilizer Engineering Technology Center of China Tobacco, Zunyi 563100, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(10), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9100632
Received: 11 September 2019 / Revised: 18 October 2019 / Accepted: 18 October 2019 / Published: 21 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspectives of Essential Oils)
This study explored the chemical compositions of garlic essential oil, the inhibitory activity of garlic essential oil and diallyl disulfide (DADS) against Phytophthora nicotianae, and the effects on mycelial plasma membrane permeability and P. nicotianae inhibition. In total, 29 compounds were detected in garlic essential oil, of which 26 were detected by gas chromatography‒mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 21 by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) GC-MS. DADS (60.12% and 19.09%) and trisulfide di-2-propenyl (14.18% and 17.98%) were the major components identified by HS-SPME GC-MS and GC-MS analysis, respectively. Half-inhibitory concentration (Ec50, antagonism) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, fumigation) of DADS against P. nicotianae were 150.83 μL/L and 20 μL/L, respectively, while Ec50 of garlic essential oil was 1108.25 μL/L. Mycelial membrane permeability gradually increased in a concentration-dependent manner, and cell death increased at 450 μL/L DADS. Furthermore, DADS treatment significantly reduced the incidence of tobacco black shank and the number of P. nicotianae pathogens in rhizosphere soil. DADS also promoted root development of tobacco seedlings at low concentrations, which was inhibited at high concentrations. Therefore, DADS may play an important role in the antifungal effect against P. nicotianae by destroying mycelial cell membrane integrity, causing an increase in cell membrane permeability, and leading to cell death. View Full-Text
Keywords: garlic essential oil; diallyl disulfide; volatiles; Phytophthora nicotianae; biofumigant garlic essential oil; diallyl disulfide; volatiles; Phytophthora nicotianae; biofumigant
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Wang, Y.; Wei, K.; Han, X.; Zhao, D.; Zheng, Y.; Chao, J.; Gou, J.; Kong, F.; Zhang, C.-S. The Antifungal Effect of Garlic Essential Oil on Phytophthora nicotianae and the Inhibitory Component Involved. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 632.

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