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Article

Exploring the Interactions of Ruthenium (II) Carbosilane Metallodendrimers and Precursors with Model Cell Membranes through a Dual Spin-Label Spin-Probe Technique Using EPR

1
Department of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Urbino “Carlo Bo”, 61029 Urbino, Italy
2
Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, and Research Institute in Chemistry “Andrés M. del Río” (IQAR), University of Alcalá, 28805 Madrid, Spain
3
Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), 088034 Barcelona, Spain
4
Institute Ramón y Cajal for Health Research (IRYCIS), 28034 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally to this work.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(10), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9100540
Received: 7 August 2019 / Revised: 17 September 2019 / Accepted: 23 September 2019 / Published: 27 September 2019
Dendrimers exhibit unique interactions with cell membranes, arising from their nanometric size and high surface area. To a great extent, these interactions define their biological activity and can be reported in situ by spin-labelling techniques. Schiff-base carbosilane ruthenium (II) metallodendrimers are promising antitumor agents with a mechanism of action yet to explore. In order to study their in situ interactions with model cell membranes occurring at a molecular level, namely cetyltrimethylammonium bromide micelles (CTAB) and lecithin liposomes (LEC), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was selected. Both a spin probe, 4-(N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecyl)ammonium-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl bromide (CAT12), able to enter the model membranes, and a spin label, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) covalently attached at newly synthesized heterofunctional dendrimers, were used to provide complementary information on the dendrimer–membrane interactions. The computer-aided EPR analysis demonstrated a good agreement between the results obtained for the spin probe and spin label experiments. Both points of view suggested the partial insertion of the dendrimer surface groups into the surfactant aggregates, mainly CTAB micelles, and the occurrence of both polar and hydrophobic interactions, while dendrimer–LEC interactions involved more polar interactions between surface groups. We found out that subtle changes in the dendrimer structure greatly modified their interacting abilities and, subsequently, their anticancer activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: electron paramagnetic resonance; dendrimer; metallodendrimer; ruthenium; cell membrane; spin probe; cancer electron paramagnetic resonance; dendrimer; metallodendrimer; ruthenium; cell membrane; spin probe; cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carloni, R.; Sanz del Olmo, N.; Ortega, P.; Fattori, A.; Gómez, R.; Ottaviani, M.F.; García-Gallego, S.; Cangiotti, M.; de la Mata, F.J. Exploring the Interactions of Ruthenium (II) Carbosilane Metallodendrimers and Precursors with Model Cell Membranes through a Dual Spin-Label Spin-Probe Technique Using EPR. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 540. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9100540

AMA Style

Carloni R, Sanz del Olmo N, Ortega P, Fattori A, Gómez R, Ottaviani MF, García-Gallego S, Cangiotti M, de la Mata FJ. Exploring the Interactions of Ruthenium (II) Carbosilane Metallodendrimers and Precursors with Model Cell Membranes through a Dual Spin-Label Spin-Probe Technique Using EPR. Biomolecules. 2019; 9(10):540. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9100540

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carloni, Riccardo, Natalia Sanz del Olmo, Paula Ortega, Alberto Fattori, Rafael Gómez, Maria F. Ottaviani, Sandra García-Gallego, Michela Cangiotti, and F. J. de la Mata 2019. "Exploring the Interactions of Ruthenium (II) Carbosilane Metallodendrimers and Precursors with Model Cell Membranes through a Dual Spin-Label Spin-Probe Technique Using EPR" Biomolecules 9, no. 10: 540. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9100540

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