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Biomolecules 2019, 9(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9010024

Plasma Zonulin Levels as a Non-Invasive Biomarker of Intestinal Permeability in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

1
Health Sciences University, Kanuni Sultan Süleyman Training and Research Hospital, Internal Medicine Clinic, Post Code:34303, Istanbul, Turkey
2
Health Sciences University, Kanuni Sultan Süleyman Training and Research Hospital Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic, Post Code:34303, Istanbul, Turkey
3
Health Sciences University, Bakirkoy Dr Sadi Konuk Training and Research Hospital Cardiology Clinic, Post Code:34147 Istanbul, Turkey
4
Department of Biochemistry, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa,Post Code:34098 Istanbul, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
PDF [268 KB, uploaded 11 January 2019]   |   Review Reports

Abstract

Objective: We aimed to compare the levels of plasma zonulin, a non-invasive biomarker of increased intestinal permeability, between pregnant subjects, with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), at 24–28 gestational weeks. The eighty-five consecutive pregnant subjects that presented to our hospital’s obstetrics outpatient clinic and were diagnosed with GDM, for the first time by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), formed the GDM group; 90 consecutive subjects that were not diagnosed with GDM by OGTT, formed the control group. The diagnosis of GDM was made by an OGTT performed between the 24th and 28th weeks of gestation, and in compliance with the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. Plasma zonulin levels were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. The Plasma zonulin level was significantly higher in the GDM group than the control group (p < 0.001). A correlation analysis showed that plasma zonulin level was positively correlated to body mass index (BMI), creatinine, fasting plasma glucose, baseline, first hour, and two hours glucose levels and the OGTT, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Our findings suggest that zonulin may be a non-invasive biomarker involved in the pathogenesis of GDM. Further large-scale studies are needed on this subject.
Keywords: zonulin; gestational diabetes mellitus; pregnancy; intestinal permeability zonulin; gestational diabetes mellitus; pregnancy; intestinal permeability
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Demir, E.; Ozkan, H.; Seckin, K.D.; Sahtiyancı, B.; Demir, B.; Tabak, O.; Kumbasar, A.; Uzun, H. Plasma Zonulin Levels as a Non-Invasive Biomarker of Intestinal Permeability in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 24.

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