Next Article in Journal
Amino Acid Distribution Rules Predict Protein Fold: Protein Grammar for Beta-Strand Sandwich-Like Structures
Next Article in Special Issue
Artificial Affinity Proteins as Ligands of Immunoglobulins
Previous Article in Journal
Biodegradable Chitosan Nanoparticle Coatings on Titanium for the Delivery of BMP-2
Previous Article in Special Issue
Immunoglobulins: 25 Years of Immunoinformatics and IMGT-ONTOLOGY
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Biomolecules 2015, 5(1), 20-40;

Factors Regulating Immunoglobulin Production by Normal and Disease-Associated Plasma Cells

Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Illinois University, 349 Montgomery Hall, DeKalb, IL 60115, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 November 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2015 / Published: 21 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunoglobulin)
Full-Text   |   PDF [122 KB, uploaded 22 January 2015]


Immunoglobulins are molecules produced by activated B cells and plasma cells in response to exposure to antigens. Upon antigen exposure, these molecules are secreted allowing the immune system to recognize and effectively respond to a myriad of pathogens. Immunoglobulin or antibody secreting cells are the mature form of B lymphocytes, which during their development undergo gene rearrangements and selection in the bone marrow ultimately leading to the generation of B cells, each expressing a single antigen-specific receptor/immunoglobulin molecule. Each individual immunoglobulin molecule has an affinity for a unique motif, or epitope, found on a given antigen. When presented with an antigen, activated B cells differentiate into either plasma cells (which secrete large amounts of antibody that is specific for the inducing antigen), or memory B cells (which are long-lived and elicit a stronger and faster response if the host is re-exposed to the same antigen). The secreted form of immunoglobulin, when bound to an antigen, serves as an effector molecule that directs other cells of the immune system to facilitate the neutralization of soluble antigen or the eradication of the antigen-expressing pathogen. This review will focus on the regulation of secreted immunoglobulin by long-lived normal or disease-associated plasma cells. Specifically, the focus will be on signaling and transcriptional events that regulate the development and homeostasis of long-lived immunoglobulin secreting plasma cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunoglobulin; B cells; plasma cells; malignant B cells; autoimmune B cells immunoglobulin; B cells; plasma cells; malignant B cells; autoimmune B cells
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Jackson, D.A.; Elsawa, S.F. Factors Regulating Immunoglobulin Production by Normal and Disease-Associated Plasma Cells. Biomolecules 2015, 5, 20-40.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Biomolecules EISSN 2218-273X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top