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Biomolecules 2014, 4(4), 940-955;

Nuclear Transport of Yeast Proteasomes

Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Medical Sciences Building, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada
Received: 2 June 2014 / Revised: 18 August 2014 / Accepted: 26 September 2014 / Published: 20 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proteasomes and Its Regulators)
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Proteasomes are conserved protease complexes enriched in the nuclei of dividing yeast cells, a major site for protein degradation. If yeast cells do not proliferate and transit to quiescence, metabolic changes result in the dissociation of proteasomes into proteolytic core and regulatory complexes and their sequestration into motile cytosolic proteasome storage granuli. These granuli rapidly clear with the resumption of growth, releasing the stored proteasomes, which relocalize back to the nucleus to promote cell cycle progression. Here, I report on three models of how proteasomes are transported from the cytoplasm into the nucleus of yeast cells. The first model applies for dividing yeast and is based on the canonical pathway using classical nuclear localization sequences of proteasomal subcomplexes and the classical import receptor importin/karyopherin αβ. The second model applies for quiescent yeast cells, which resume growth and use Blm10, a HEAT-like repeat protein structurally related to karyopherin β, for nuclear import of proteasome core particles. In the third model, the fully-assembled proteasome is imported into the nucleus. Our still marginal knowledge about proteasome dynamics will inspire the discussion on how protein degradation by proteasomes may be regulated in different cellular compartments of dividing and quiescent eukaryotic cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: proteasome; nuclear transport; protein degradation proteasome; nuclear transport; protein degradation

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Enenkel, C. Nuclear Transport of Yeast Proteasomes. Biomolecules 2014, 4, 940-955.

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