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Biomolecules 2014, 4(4), 1045-1069;

The Immunoglobulins of Cold-Blooded Vertebrates

School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 September 2014 / Revised: 10 November 2014 / Accepted: 13 November 2014 / Published: 24 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunoglobulin)
Full-Text   |   PDF [24386 KB, uploaded 24 November 2014]   |  


Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. Studies of the antibodies and humoral immune responses of cartilaginous fishes and other cold-blooded vertebrates (bony fishes, amphibians and reptiles) are not only revealing information about the emergence and roles of the different Ig heavy and light chain isotypes, but also the evolution of specialised adaptive features such as isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the adaptive immune response in these vertebrate lineages arose a long time ago, it is most definitely not primitive and has evolved to become complex and sophisticated. This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more “conventional” mammalian species. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunoglobulin; antibody; ectotherms; cartilaginous fish; bony fish; amphibians; reptiles immunoglobulin; antibody; ectotherms; cartilaginous fish; bony fish; amphibians; reptiles

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Pettinello, R.; Dooley, H. The Immunoglobulins of Cold-Blooded Vertebrates. Biomolecules 2014, 4, 1045-1069.

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