Next Article in Journal
MDM2-Driven Ubiquitination Rapidly Removes p53 from Its Cognate Promoters
Next Article in Special Issue
Environmental Contaminants Acting as Endocrine Disruptors Modulate Atherogenic Processes: New Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases in Women?
Previous Article in Journal
Nigella sativa L. Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Activities: A Review (2019–2021)
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Role of Estrogens and Vitamin D in Cardiomyocyte Protection: A Female Perspective

Sex-Related Factors in Cardiovascular Complications Associated to COVID-19

Department of Experimental Medicine, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161 Rome, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Clara Crescioli and Barbara Ghinassi
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 21;
Received: 12 November 2021 / Revised: 17 December 2021 / Accepted: 22 December 2021 / Published: 24 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomolecules and Cardiovascular Disease in Women)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the pandemic infection caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), presents with an extremely heterogeneous spectrum of symptoms and signs. The clinical manifestations seem to be correlated with disease severity. COVID-19 susceptibility and mortality show a significant sex imbalance, with men being more prone to infection and showing a higher rate of hospitalization and mortality compared to women. Such variability can be ascribed to both sex-related biological factors and gender-related behavioral cues. This review will discuss the potential mechanisms accounting for sex/gender influence in vulnerability to COVID-19. Cardiovascular diseases play a central role in determining COVID-19 outcome, whether they are pre-existent or arose upon infection. We will pay particular attention to the impact of sex and gender on cardiovascular manifestations related to COVID-19. Finally, we will discuss the sex-dependent variability in some biomarkers for the evaluation of COVID-19 infection and prognosis. The aim of this work is to highlight the significance of gendered medicine in setting up personalized programs for COVID-19 prevention, clinical evaluation and treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; cardiovascular diseases; sex; gender; biomarkers SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; cardiovascular diseases; sex; gender; biomarkers
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Megiorni, F.; Pontecorvi, P.; Gerini, G.; Anastasiadou, E.; Marchese, C.; Ceccarelli, S. Sex-Related Factors in Cardiovascular Complications Associated to COVID-19. Biomolecules 2022, 12, 21.

AMA Style

Megiorni F, Pontecorvi P, Gerini G, Anastasiadou E, Marchese C, Ceccarelli S. Sex-Related Factors in Cardiovascular Complications Associated to COVID-19. Biomolecules. 2022; 12(1):21.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Megiorni, Francesca, Paola Pontecorvi, Giulia Gerini, Eleni Anastasiadou, Cinzia Marchese, and Simona Ceccarelli. 2022. "Sex-Related Factors in Cardiovascular Complications Associated to COVID-19" Biomolecules 12, no. 1: 21.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop