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The Bigger Picture: Why Oral Mucosa Heals Better Than Skin

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Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, Amsterdam Infection and Immunity Institute, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1108, 1081 HZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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Department of Preventive Dentistry, Academic Center for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1081 HZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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Department of Oral Biochemistry, Academic Center for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1081 HZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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Burn Centre, and Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, Red Cross Hospital, Vondellaan 13, 1942 LE Beverwijk, The Netherlands
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Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1117, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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Department of Pediatric Surgery, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Center for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1081 HZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ryan Moseley, Robert Steadman and Adam C. Midgley
Biomolecules 2021, 11(8), 1165; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11081165
Received: 11 June 2021 / Revised: 29 July 2021 / Accepted: 2 August 2021 / Published: 6 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Wound Healing)
Wound healing is an essential process to restore tissue integrity after trauma. Large skin wounds such as burns often heal with hypertrophic scarring and contractures, resulting in disfigurements and reduced joint mobility. Such adverse healing outcomes are less common in the oral mucosa, which generally heals faster compared to skin. Several studies have identified differences between oral and skin wound healing. Most of these studies however focus only on a single stage of wound healing or a single cell type. The aim of this review is to provide an extensive overview of wound healing in skin versus oral mucosa during all stages of wound healing and including all cell types and molecules involved in the process and also taking into account environmental specific factors such as exposure to saliva and the microbiome. Next to intrinsic properties of resident cells and differential expression of cytokines and growth factors, multiple external factors have been identified that contribute to oral wound healing. It can be concluded that faster wound closure, the presence of saliva, a more rapid immune response, and increased extracellular matrix remodeling all contribute to the superior wound healing and reduced scar formation in oral mucosa, compared to skin. View Full-Text
Keywords: wound healing; skin; oral; saliva; microbiome; scar; cytokines; growth factors wound healing; skin; oral; saliva; microbiome; scar; cytokines; growth factors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Waasdorp, M.; Krom, B.P.; Bikker, F.J.; van Zuijlen, P.P.M.; Niessen, F.B.; Gibbs, S. The Bigger Picture: Why Oral Mucosa Heals Better Than Skin. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 1165. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11081165

AMA Style

Waasdorp M, Krom BP, Bikker FJ, van Zuijlen PPM, Niessen FB, Gibbs S. The Bigger Picture: Why Oral Mucosa Heals Better Than Skin. Biomolecules. 2021; 11(8):1165. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11081165

Chicago/Turabian Style

Waasdorp, Maaike, Bastiaan P. Krom, Floris J. Bikker, Paul P.M. van Zuijlen, Frank B. Niessen, and Susan Gibbs. 2021. "The Bigger Picture: Why Oral Mucosa Heals Better Than Skin" Biomolecules 11, no. 8: 1165. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11081165

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