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Article

Bioinstructive Layer-by-Layer-Coated Customizable 3D Printed Perfusable Microchannels Embedded in Photocrosslinkable Hydrogels for Vascular Tissue Engineering

CICECO–Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editor: Mikhail A. Anisimov
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 863; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060863
Received: 13 May 2021 / Revised: 4 June 2021 / Accepted: 7 June 2021 / Published: 10 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine)
The development of complex and large 3D vascularized tissue constructs remains the major goal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM). To date, several strategies have been proposed to build functional and perfusable vascular networks in 3D tissue-engineered constructs to ensure the long-term cell survival and the functionality of the assembled tissues after implantation. However, none of them have been entirely successful in attaining a fully functional vascular network. Herein, we report an alternative approach to bioengineer 3D vascularized constructs by embedding bioinstructive 3D multilayered microchannels, developed by combining 3D printing with the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technology, in photopolymerizable hydrogels. Alginate (ALG) was chosen as the ink to produce customizable 3D sacrificial microstructures owing to its biocompatibility and structural similarity to the extracellular matrices of native tissues. ALG structures were further LbL coated with bioinstructive chitosan and arginine–glycine–aspartic acid-coupled ALG multilayers, embedded in shear-thinning photocrosslinkable xanthan gum hydrogels and exposed to a calcium-chelating solution to form perfusable multilayered microchannels, mimicking the biological barriers, such as the basement membrane, in which the endothelial cells were seeded, denoting an enhanced cell adhesion. The 3D constructs hold great promise for engineering a wide array of large-scale 3D vascularized tissue constructs for modular TERM strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: biocompatible polymers; 3D printing; layer-by-layer assembly; perfusable multilayered microchannels; natural-origin hydrogels; endothelial cells; prevascularized networks; modular tissue engineering biocompatible polymers; 3D printing; layer-by-layer assembly; perfusable multilayered microchannels; natural-origin hydrogels; endothelial cells; prevascularized networks; modular tissue engineering
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sousa, C.F.V.; Saraiva, C.A.; Correia, T.R.; Pesqueira, T.; Patrício, S.G.; Rial-Hermida, M.I.; Borges, J.; Mano, J.F. Bioinstructive Layer-by-Layer-Coated Customizable 3D Printed Perfusable Microchannels Embedded in Photocrosslinkable Hydrogels for Vascular Tissue Engineering. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 863. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060863

AMA Style

Sousa CFV, Saraiva CA, Correia TR, Pesqueira T, Patrício SG, Rial-Hermida MI, Borges J, Mano JF. Bioinstructive Layer-by-Layer-Coated Customizable 3D Printed Perfusable Microchannels Embedded in Photocrosslinkable Hydrogels for Vascular Tissue Engineering. Biomolecules. 2021; 11(6):863. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060863

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sousa, Cristiana F.V., Catarina A. Saraiva, Tiago R. Correia, Tamagno Pesqueira, Sónia G. Patrício, Maria I. Rial-Hermida, João Borges, and João F. Mano. 2021. "Bioinstructive Layer-by-Layer-Coated Customizable 3D Printed Perfusable Microchannels Embedded in Photocrosslinkable Hydrogels for Vascular Tissue Engineering" Biomolecules 11, no. 6: 863. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060863

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