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Article

Exogenous 3,3′-Diindolylmethane Improves Vanadium Stress Tolerance in Brassica napus Seedling Shoots by Modulating Antioxidant Enzyme Activities

1
Department of Plant Sciences, Qwaqwa Campus, University of the Free State, Phuthadithjaba 9866, South Africa
2
Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535, South Africa
3
Plant Omics Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535, South Africa
4
DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Food Security, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7530, South Africa
5
Plant Biotechnology Research Group, Department of Biotechnology, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535, South Africa
6
C.S. Bond Life Sciences Center, Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mohamed A. El-Esawi
Biomolecules 2021, 11(3), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11030436
Received: 6 January 2021 / Revised: 24 February 2021 / Accepted: 25 February 2021 / Published: 16 March 2021
3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) belongs to a family of indole glucosinolate compounds that have been shown to improve Brassica napus growth through the modulation of reactive oxygen species when applied exogenously. The B. napus cultivar AV Garnet was previously identified as a vanadium-sensitive cultivar. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether exogenous DIM could improve the vanadium tolerance of AV Garnet. We performed the following experiments: seed germination assessment, dry weight assessment, cell viability assay, chlorophyll content assay, malondialdehyde (MDA) assay, conjugated diene (CD) content assay, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content assay, superoxide (O2) content determination, methylglyoxal (MG) content determination, hydroxyl radical (·OH) concentration determination, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity assay, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity assay, glyoxalase I (Gly I) activity assay, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity assay and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analysis for vanadium content determination. Under vanadium stress, exogenous DIM increased the seed germination percentage, shoot dry weight, cell viability and chlorophyll content. Exogenous DIM also led to a decrease in MDA, CD, H2O2, O2, MG and ·OH, under vanadium stress in the shoots. Furthermore, DIM application led to an increase in the enzymatic activities of APX, SOD, Gly I and GST under vanadium stress. Interestingly, under vanadium stress, DIM treatment did not alter vanadium content in B. napus shoots. Our results indicate that exogenous application of DIM can improve B. napus seedling shoot growth and biomass under vanadium stress by priming the antioxidant enzymes via reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3,3′-diindolylmethane; antioxidant enzymes; Brassica napus; reactive oxygen species; vanadium 3,3′-diindolylmethane; antioxidant enzymes; Brassica napus; reactive oxygen species; vanadium
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gokul, A.; Fahiem Carelse, M.; Niekerk, L.-A.; Klein, A.; Ludidi, N.; Mendoza-Cozatl, D.; Keyster, M. Exogenous 3,3′-Diindolylmethane Improves Vanadium Stress Tolerance in Brassica napus Seedling Shoots by Modulating Antioxidant Enzyme Activities. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 436. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11030436

AMA Style

Gokul A, Fahiem Carelse M, Niekerk L-A, Klein A, Ludidi N, Mendoza-Cozatl D, Keyster M. Exogenous 3,3′-Diindolylmethane Improves Vanadium Stress Tolerance in Brassica napus Seedling Shoots by Modulating Antioxidant Enzyme Activities. Biomolecules. 2021; 11(3):436. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11030436

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gokul, Arun, Mogamat Fahiem Carelse, Lee-Ann Niekerk, Ashwil Klein, Ndiko Ludidi, David Mendoza-Cozatl, and Marshall Keyster. 2021. "Exogenous 3,3′-Diindolylmethane Improves Vanadium Stress Tolerance in Brassica napus Seedling Shoots by Modulating Antioxidant Enzyme Activities" Biomolecules 11, no. 3: 436. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11030436

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