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Article

Nourin-Dependent miR-137 and miR-106b: Novel Early Inflammatory Diagnostic Biomarkers for Unstable Angina Patients

1
Research & Development, Nour Heart, Inc., Vienna, VA 22180, USA
2
Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, UConn Health, Farmington, CT 06032, USA
3
Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
4
Department of Cardiology, Kasr Alainy Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo 11562, Egypt
5
Department of Clinical Pathology-Hematology, Ain Shams Medical Research Institute (MASRI), Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egyp
6
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Kasr Alainy Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo 11562, Egypt
7
Cell & Molecular Tissue Engineering, LLC Farmington, CT 06032, USA
8
Integrative Biosciences Center (IBio), Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Clara Crescioli and Pietro Scicchitano
Biomolecules 2021, 11(3), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11030368
Received: 19 December 2020 / Revised: 19 January 2021 / Accepted: 23 February 2021 / Published: 28 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Biomarkers In Cardiology)
Background: Currently, no blood biomarkers exist that can diagnose unstable angina (UA) patients. Nourin is an early inflammatory mediator rapidly released within 5 min by reversible ischemic myocardium, and if ischemia persists, it is also released by necrosis. Nourin is elevated in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients but not in symptomatic noncardiac and healthy subjects. Recently, circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been established as markers of disease, including cardiac injury and inflammation. Objectives: To profile and validate the potential diagnostic value of Nourin-dependent miR-137 (marker of cell damage) and miR-106b-5p (marker of inflammation) as early biomarkers in suspected UA patients and to investigate the association of their target and regulating genes. Methods: Using Nourin amino acid sequence, an integrated bioinformatics analysis was conducted. Analysis indicated that Nourin is a direct target for miR-137 and miR-106b-5p in myocardial ischemic injury. Two linked molecular networks of lncRNA/miRNAs/mRNAs were also retrieved, including CTB89H12.4/miR-137/FTHL-17 and CTB89H12.4/miR-106b-5p/ANAPC11. Gene expression profiling was assessed in serum samples collected at presentation to an emergency department (ED) from: (1) UA patients (n = 30) (confirmed by invasive coronary angiography with stenosis greater than 50% and troponin level below the clinical decision limit); (2) patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (n = 16) (confirmed by persistent ST-segment changes and elevated troponin level); and (3) healthy subjects (n = 16). Results: Gene expression profiles showed that miR-137 and miR-106b-5p were significantly upregulated by 1382-fold and 192-fold in UA compared to healthy, and by 2.5-fold and 4.6-fold in STEMI compared to UA, respectively. Healthy subjects showed minimal expression profile. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis revealed that the two miRNAs were sensitive and specific biomarkers for assessment of UA and STEMI patients. Additionally, Spearman’s correlation analysis revealed a significant association of miRNAs with the associated mRNA targets and the regulating lncRNA. Conclusions: Nourin-dependent gene expression of miR-137 and miR-106b-5p are novel blood-based biomarkers that can diagnose UA and STEMI patients at presentation and stratify severity of myocardial ischemia, with higher expression in STEMI compared to UA. Early diagnosis of suspected UA patients using the novel Nourin biomarkers is key for initiating guideline-based therapy that improves patients’ health outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: unstable angina; Nourin; miRNAs; inflammatory diagnostic biomarkers; reversible myocardial ischemia; acute coronary syndromes unstable angina; Nourin; miRNAs; inflammatory diagnostic biomarkers; reversible myocardial ischemia; acute coronary syndromes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Elgebaly, S.A.; Christenson, R.H.; Kandil, H.; El-Khazragy, N.; Rashed, L.; Yacoub, B.; Eldeeb, H.; Ali, M.; Sharafieh, R.; Klueh, U.; Kreutzer, D.L. Nourin-Dependent miR-137 and miR-106b: Novel Early Inflammatory Diagnostic Biomarkers for Unstable Angina Patients. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 368. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11030368

AMA Style

Elgebaly SA, Christenson RH, Kandil H, El-Khazragy N, Rashed L, Yacoub B, Eldeeb H, Ali M, Sharafieh R, Klueh U, Kreutzer DL. Nourin-Dependent miR-137 and miR-106b: Novel Early Inflammatory Diagnostic Biomarkers for Unstable Angina Patients. Biomolecules. 2021; 11(3):368. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11030368

Chicago/Turabian Style

Elgebaly, Salwa A.; Christenson, Robert H.; Kandil, Hossam; El-Khazragy, Nashwa; Rashed, Laila; Yacoub, Beshoy; Eldeeb, Heba; Ali, Mahmoud; Sharafieh, Roshanak; Klueh, Ulrike; Kreutzer, Donald L. 2021. "Nourin-Dependent miR-137 and miR-106b: Novel Early Inflammatory Diagnostic Biomarkers for Unstable Angina Patients" Biomolecules 11, no. 3: 368. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11030368

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