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Article

Phospholipid-Gold Nanorods Induce Energy Crisis in MCF-7 Cells: Cytotoxicity Evaluation Using LC-MS-Based Metabolomics Approach

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Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan
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Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan, Amman 11733, Jordan
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Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, The Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of Petra, Amman 11196, Jordan
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Centre for Analytical Bioscience, Advanced Materials and Healthcare Technologies Division, School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
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Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmacy, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan
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Department of Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bahman Anvari
Biomolecules 2021, 11(3), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11030364
Received: 17 January 2021 / Revised: 19 February 2021 / Accepted: 22 February 2021 / Published: 27 February 2021
Phospholipid-modified gold nanorods (phospholipid-GNRs) have demonstrated drastic cytotoxicity towards MCF-7 breast cancer cells compared to polyethylene glycol-coated GNRs (PEG-GNRs). In this study, the mechanism of cytotoxicity of phospholipid-GNRs towards MCF-7 cells was investigated using mass spectrometry-based global metabolic profiling and compared to PEGylated counterparts. The results showed that when compared to PEG-GNRs, phospholipid-GNRs induced significant and more pronounced impact on the metabolic profile of MCF-7 cells. Phospholipid-GNRs significantly decreased the levels of metabolic intermediates and end-products associated with cellular energy metabolisms resulting in dysfunction in TCA cycle, a reduction in glycolytic activity, and imbalance of the redox state. Additionally, phospholipid-GNRs disrupted several metabolism pathways essential for the normal growth and proliferation of cancer cells including impairment in purine, pyrimidine, and glutathione metabolisms accompanied by lower amino acid pools. On the other hand, the effects of PEG-GNRs were limited to alteration of glycolysis and pyrimidine metabolism. The current work shed light on the importance of metabolomics as a valuable analytical approach to explore the molecular effects of GNRs with different surface chemistry on cancer cell and highlights metabolic targets that might serve as promising treatment strategy in cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: gold nanorods; metabolomics; LC-MS; MCF-7; amino acids; energy metabolism; TCA cycle gold nanorods; metabolomics; LC-MS; MCF-7; amino acids; energy metabolism; TCA cycle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dahabiyeh, L.A.; Mahmoud, N.N.; Al-Natour, M.A.; Safo, L.; Kim, D.-H.; Khalil, E.A.; Abu-Dahab, R. Phospholipid-Gold Nanorods Induce Energy Crisis in MCF-7 Cells: Cytotoxicity Evaluation Using LC-MS-Based Metabolomics Approach. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 364. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11030364

AMA Style

Dahabiyeh LA, Mahmoud NN, Al-Natour MA, Safo L, Kim D-H, Khalil EA, Abu-Dahab R. Phospholipid-Gold Nanorods Induce Energy Crisis in MCF-7 Cells: Cytotoxicity Evaluation Using LC-MS-Based Metabolomics Approach. Biomolecules. 2021; 11(3):364. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11030364

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dahabiyeh, Lina A., Nouf N. Mahmoud, Mohammad A. Al-Natour, Laudina Safo, Dong-Hyun Kim, Enam A. Khalil, and Rana Abu-Dahab. 2021. "Phospholipid-Gold Nanorods Induce Energy Crisis in MCF-7 Cells: Cytotoxicity Evaluation Using LC-MS-Based Metabolomics Approach" Biomolecules 11, no. 3: 364. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11030364

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