Next Article in Journal
The Design and Preclinical Evaluation of a Single-Label Bimodal Nanobody Tracer for Image-Guided Surgery
Next Article in Special Issue
Role of Thrombin in Central Nervous System Injury and Disease
Previous Article in Journal
Activated Protein C (APC) and 3K3A-APC-Induced Regression of Choroidal Neovascularization (CNV) Is Accompanied by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Reduction
Previous Article in Special Issue
Treatment of Diabetic Neuropathy with A Novel PAR1-Targeting Molecule
Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Monitoring and Modulating Inflammation-Associated Alterations in Synaptic Plasticity: Role of Brain Stimulation and the Blood–Brain Interface

1
Department of Neuroanatomy, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
2
Center Brain Links Brain Tools, University of Freiburg, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
3
Center for Basics in NeuroModulation (NeuroModulBasics), Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nicola Maggio
Biomolecules 2021, 11(3), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11030359
Received: 19 January 2021 / Revised: 18 February 2021 / Accepted: 20 February 2021 / Published: 26 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Biomolecules in Neuro-ThromboInflammation)
Inflammation of the central nervous system can be triggered by endogenous and exogenous stimuli such as local or systemic infection, trauma, and stroke. In addition to neurodegeneration and cell death, alterations in physiological brain functions are often associated with neuroinflammation. Robust experimental evidence has demonstrated that inflammatory cytokines affect the ability of neurons to express plasticity. It has been well-established that inflammation-associated alterations in synaptic plasticity contribute to the development of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Nevertheless, diagnostic approaches and interventional strategies to restore inflammatory deficits in synaptic plasticity are limited. Here, we review recent findings on inflammation-associated alterations in synaptic plasticity and the potential role of the blood–brain interface, i.e., the blood–brain barrier, in modulating synaptic plasticity. Based on recent findings indicating that brain stimulation promotes plasticity and modulates vascular function, we argue that clinically employed non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, could be used for monitoring and modulating inflammation-induced alterations in synaptic plasticity. View Full-Text
Keywords: synaptic plasticity; lipopolysaccharide; interleukin 10; transcranial magnetic stimulation synaptic plasticity; lipopolysaccharide; interleukin 10; transcranial magnetic stimulation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Lenz, M.; Eichler, A.; Vlachos, A. Monitoring and Modulating Inflammation-Associated Alterations in Synaptic Plasticity: Role of Brain Stimulation and the Blood–Brain Interface. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 359. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11030359

AMA Style

Lenz M, Eichler A, Vlachos A. Monitoring and Modulating Inflammation-Associated Alterations in Synaptic Plasticity: Role of Brain Stimulation and the Blood–Brain Interface. Biomolecules. 2021; 11(3):359. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11030359

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lenz, Maximilian; Eichler, Amelie; Vlachos, Andreas. 2021. "Monitoring and Modulating Inflammation-Associated Alterations in Synaptic Plasticity: Role of Brain Stimulation and the Blood–Brain Interface" Biomolecules 11, no. 3: 359. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11030359

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop