Next Article in Journal
Topical Collection “Pharmacology of Medicinal Plants”
Next Article in Special Issue
Epigenetics and Communication Mechanisms in Microglia Activation with a View on Technological Approaches
Previous Article in Journal
Sarocladium and Lecanicillium Associated with Maize Seeds and Their Potential to Form Selected Secondary Metabolites
Previous Article in Special Issue
Microglia in Alzheimer’s Disease in the Context of Tau Pathology

Microglia-Mediated Neurodegeneration in Perinatal Brain Injuries

School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, VIC 3085, Australia
NeuroDiderot, Inserm, Université de Paris, Paris 75019, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2021, 11(1), 99;
Received: 29 November 2020 / Revised: 8 January 2021 / Accepted: 11 January 2021 / Published: 13 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microglia in Neurodegeneration)
Perinatal brain injuries, including encephalopathy related to fetal growth restriction, encephalopathy of prematurity, neonatal encephalopathy of the term neonate, and neonatal stroke, are a major cause of neurodevelopmental disorders. They trigger cellular and molecular cascades that lead in many cases to permanent motor, cognitive, and/or behavioral deficits. Damage includes neuronal degeneration, selective loss of subclasses of interneurons, blocked maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells leading to dysmyelination, axonopathy and very likely synaptopathy, leading to impaired connectivity. The nature and severity of changes vary according to the type and severity of insult and maturation stage of the brain. Microglial activation has been demonstrated almost ubiquitously in perinatal brain injuries and these responses are key cell orchestrators of brain pathology but also attempts at repair. These divergent roles are facilitated by a diverse suite of transcriptional profiles and through a complex dialogue with other brain cell types. Adding to the complexity of understanding microglia and how to modulate them to protect the brain is that these cells have their own developmental stages, enabling them to be key participants in brain building. Of note, not only do microglia help build the brain and respond to brain injury, but they are a key cell in the transduction of systemic inflammation into neuroinflammation. Systemic inflammatory exposure is a key risk factor for poor neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm born infants. Based on these observations, microglia appear as a key cell target for neuroprotection in perinatal brain injuries. Numerous strategies have been developed experimentally to modulate microglia and attenuate brain injury based on these strong supporting data and we will summarize these. View Full-Text
Keywords: neuroprotection; encephalopathy; neuroinflammation; stroke; prematurity; neurodegenerative disorders neuroprotection; encephalopathy; neuroinflammation; stroke; prematurity; neurodegenerative disorders
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Fleiss, B.; Van Steenwinckel, J.; Bokobza, C.; K. Shearer, I.; Ross-Munro, E.; Gressens, P. Microglia-Mediated Neurodegeneration in Perinatal Brain Injuries. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 99.

AMA Style

Fleiss B, Van Steenwinckel J, Bokobza C, K. Shearer I, Ross-Munro E, Gressens P. Microglia-Mediated Neurodegeneration in Perinatal Brain Injuries. Biomolecules. 2021; 11(1):99.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fleiss, Bobbi, Juliette Van Steenwinckel, Cindy Bokobza, Isabelle K. Shearer, Emily Ross-Munro, and Pierre Gressens. 2021. "Microglia-Mediated Neurodegeneration in Perinatal Brain Injuries" Biomolecules 11, no. 1: 99.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop