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Iron Dysregulation and Inflammagens Related to Oral and Gut Health Are Central to the Development of Parkinson’s Disease

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Department of Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1 Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa
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Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1 Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa
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Department of Biochemistry and Systems Biology, Institute of Systems, Molecular and Integrative Biology, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, University of Liverpool, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 7ZB, UK
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The Novo Nordisk Foundation Centre for Biosustainability, Technical University of Denmark, Building 220, Chemitorvet 200, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2021, 11(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11010030
Received: 12 November 2020 / Revised: 16 December 2020 / Accepted: 24 December 2020 / Published: 29 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Biology)
Neuronal lesions in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are commonly associated with α-synuclein (α-Syn)-induced cell damage that are present both in the central and peripheral nervous systems of patients, with the enteric nervous system also being especially vulnerable. Here, we bring together evidence that the development and presence of PD depends on specific sets of interlinking factors that include neuroinflammation, systemic inflammation, α-Syn-induced cell damage, vascular dysfunction, iron dysregulation, and gut and periodontal dysbiosis. We argue that there is significant evidence that bacterial inflammagens fuel this systemic inflammation, and might be central to the development of PD. We also discuss the processes whereby bacterial inflammagens may be involved in causing nucleation of proteins, including of α-Syn. Lastly, we review evidence that iron chelation, pre-and probiotics, as well as antibiotics and faecal transplant treatment might be valuable treatments in PD. A most important consideration, however, is that these therapeutic options need to be validated and tested in randomized controlled clinical trials. However, targeting underlying mechanisms of PD, including gut dysbiosis and iron toxicity, have potentially opened up possibilities of a wide variety of novel treatments, which may relieve the characteristic motor and nonmotor deficits of PD, and may even slow the progression and/or accompanying gut-related conditions of the disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; bacteria; lipopolysaccharides; iron; gingipains; amyloid and α-synuclein Parkinson’s disease; bacteria; lipopolysaccharides; iron; gingipains; amyloid and α-synuclein
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vuuren, M.J.v.; Nell, T.A.; Carr, J.A.; Kell, D.B.; Pretorius, E. Iron Dysregulation and Inflammagens Related to Oral and Gut Health Are Central to the Development of Parkinson’s Disease. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 30. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11010030

AMA Style

Vuuren MJv, Nell TA, Carr JA, Kell DB, Pretorius E. Iron Dysregulation and Inflammagens Related to Oral and Gut Health Are Central to the Development of Parkinson’s Disease. Biomolecules. 2021; 11(1):30. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11010030

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vuuren, Marthinus J.v., Theodore A. Nell, Jonathan A. Carr, Douglas B. Kell, and Etheresia Pretorius. 2021. "Iron Dysregulation and Inflammagens Related to Oral and Gut Health Are Central to the Development of Parkinson’s Disease" Biomolecules 11, no. 1: 30. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11010030

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