Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive and therapy resistant pleural malignancy that is caused by asbestos exposure. MPM is associated with poor prognosis and a short patient survival. The survival time is strongly influenced by the subtype of the tumor. Dyspnea and accumulation of pleural effusion in the pleural cavity are common symptoms of MPM. The diagnostic distinction from other malignancies and reactive conditions is done using histopathology or cytopathology, always supported by immunohistochemistry, and sometimes also by analyses of soluble biomarkers in effusion supernatant. We evaluated the soluble angiogenesis related molecules as possible prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers for MPM by Luminex multiplex assay. Pleural effusion from 42 patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), 36 patients with adenocarcinoma (AD) and 40 benign (BE) effusions were analyzed for 10 different analytes that, in previous studies, were associated with angiogenesis, consisting of Angiopoietin-1, HGF, MMP-7, Osteopontin, TIMP-1, Galectin, Mesothelin, NRG1-b1, Syndecan-1 (SDC-1) and VEGF by a Human Premixed Multi-Analyte Luminex kit. We found that shed SDC-1 and MMP-7 levels were significantly lower, whereas Mesothelin and Galectin-1 levels were significantly higher in malignant mesothelioma effusions, compared to adenocarcinoma. Galectin-1, HGF, Mesothelin, MMP-7, Osteopontin, shed SDC-1, NRG1-β1, VEGF and TIMP-1 were significantly higher in malignant pleural mesothelioma effusions compared to benign samples. Moreover, there is a negative correlation between Mesothelin and shed SDC-1 and positive correlation between VEGF, Angiopoietin-1 and shed SDC-1 level in the pleural effusion from malignant cases. Shed SDC-1 and VEGF have a prognostic value in malignant mesothelioma patients. Collectively, our data suggest that MMP-7, shed SDC-1, Mesothelin and Galectin-1 can be diagnostic and VEGF and SDC-1 prognostic markers in MPM patients. Additionally, Galectin-1, HGF, Mesothelin, MMP-7, Osteopontin, shed SDC-1 and TIMP-1 can be diagnostic for malignant cases.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited