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Article

Extraction of Carotenoids from Tomato Pomace via Water-Induced Hydrocolloidal Complexation

1
Chemical Engineering Discipline, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor 47500, Malaysia
2
World Pranic Healing Foundation, India Research Center, 4th Main, Saraswathipuram, Mysore, Karnataka 570009, India
3
College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
4
Research & Innovation Department, Galanakis Laboratories, 73131 Chania, Greece
5
Food Waste Recovery Group, ISEKI Food Association, 1190 Vienna, Austria
6
Monash-Industry Palm Oil Education and Research Platform (MIPO), Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor 47500, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2020, 10(7), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10071019
Received: 7 June 2020 / Revised: 6 July 2020 / Accepted: 8 July 2020 / Published: 9 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomolecules from Plant Residues)
Agro-industrial waste is a largely untapped natural resource of bioactive compounds including carotenoids and pectin. However, conventional solvent extraction involves the excessive use of organic solvents, costly equipment, and tedious operation. These limitations of conventional extraction methods could be prospectively overcome by the carotenoid–pectin hydrocolloidal complexation. The complexation of lycopene and pectin was efficiently promoted in an aqueous environment, resulting in the colloidal complexes that can be subsequently recovered by sedimentation or centrifugation. In this study, the potential of carotenoid–pectin complexation on tomato pomace containing carotenoids and pectin was evaluated. Tomato pomace is a rich source of lycopene, β-carotene as well as pectin, making it suitable as the raw material for the carotenoid extraction. The extraction of carotenoid and pectin from tomato pomace was optimized using response surface methodology. The maximum recovery was 9.43 mg carotenoid fractions/100 g tomato pomace, while the purity of carotenoid-rich fractions was 92%. The antioxidant capacity of carotenoids extracted from the complexation method was found to be higher than that from the solvent extraction method. Moreover, extraction yield and antioxidant capacity of carotenoid obtained from the carotenoid–pectin complexation were comparable to that from solvent extraction. The carotenoid–pectin complexation is a promising green approach to valorize agro by-products for the extraction of valuable carotenoids. View Full-Text
Keywords: carotenoid–pectin complexation; tomato pomace; pectin; lycopene; antioxidant carotenoid–pectin complexation; tomato pomace; pectin; lycopene; antioxidant
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nagarajan, J.; Pui Kay, H.; Krishnamurthy, N.P.; Ramakrishnan, N.R.; Aldawoud, T.M.S.; Galanakis, C.M.; Wei, O.C. Extraction of Carotenoids from Tomato Pomace via Water-Induced Hydrocolloidal Complexation. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 1019. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10071019

AMA Style

Nagarajan J, Pui Kay H, Krishnamurthy NP, Ramakrishnan NR, Aldawoud TMS, Galanakis CM, Wei OC. Extraction of Carotenoids from Tomato Pomace via Water-Induced Hydrocolloidal Complexation. Biomolecules. 2020; 10(7):1019. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10071019

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nagarajan, Jayesree, Hang Pui Kay, Nagendra P. Krishnamurthy, Nagasundara R. Ramakrishnan, Turki M.S. Aldawoud, Charis M. Galanakis, and Ooi C. Wei 2020. "Extraction of Carotenoids from Tomato Pomace via Water-Induced Hydrocolloidal Complexation" Biomolecules 10, no. 7: 1019. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10071019

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