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Extracellular Vesicles miRNA Cargo for Microglia Polarization in Traumatic Brain Injury

Department of Biosciences, Biotechnologies and Biopharmaceutics, University of Bari, 70125 Bari, Italy
Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, 31982 Al-Ahsa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, 71122 Foggia, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Biomolecules 2020, 10(6), 901;
Received: 11 May 2020 / Revised: 6 June 2020 / Accepted: 9 June 2020 / Published: 12 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microglia in Neurodegeneration)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the major causes of death and disability worldwide, and despite its high dissemination, effective pharmacotherapies are lacking. TBI can be divided into two phases: the instantaneous primary mechanical injury, which occurs at the moment of insult, and the delayed secondary injury, which involves a cascade of biological processes that lead to neuroinflammation. Neuroinflammation is a hallmark of both acute and chronic TBI, and it is considered to be one of the major determinants of the outcome and progression of disease. In TBI one of the emerging mechanisms for cell–cell communication involved in the immune response regulation is represented by Extracellular Vesicles (EVs). These latter are produced by all cell types and are considered a fingerprint of their generating cells. Exosomes are the most studied nanosized vesicles and can carry a variety of molecular constituents of their cell of origin, including microRNAs (miRNAs). Several miRNAs have been shown to target key neuropathophysiological pathways involved in TBI. The focus of this review is to analyze exosomes and their miRNA cargo to modulate TBI neuroinflammation providing new strategies for prevent long-term progression of disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: TBI; neuroinflammation; microglia; Extracellular Vesicles; Exosomes; miRNAs TBI; neuroinflammation; microglia; Extracellular Vesicles; Exosomes; miRNAs
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Panaro, M.A.; Benameur, T.; Porro, C. Extracellular Vesicles miRNA Cargo for Microglia Polarization in Traumatic Brain Injury. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 901.

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