Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the major causes of death and disability worldwide, and despite its high dissemination, effective pharmacotherapies are lacking. TBI can be divided into two phases: the instantaneous primary mechanical injury, which occurs at the moment of insult, and the delayed secondary injury, which involves a cascade of biological processes that lead to neuroinflammation. Neuroinflammation is a hallmark of both acute and chronic TBI, and it is considered to be one of the major determinants of the outcome and progression of disease. In TBI one of the emerging mechanisms for cell–cell communication involved in the immune response regulation is represented by Extracellular Vesicles (EVs). These latter are produced by all cell types and are considered a fingerprint of their generating cells. Exosomes are the most studied nanosized vesicles and can carry a variety of molecular constituents of their cell of origin, including microRNAs (miRNAs). Several miRNAs have been shown to target key neuropathophysiological pathways involved in TBI. The focus of this review is to analyze exosomes and their miRNA cargo to modulate TBI neuroinflammation providing new strategies for prevent long-term progression of disease.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited