Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have gained attraction not only in the field of regenerative medicine but also in the field of autoimmune disease therapies or organ transplantation due to their immunoregulatory and/or immunosuppressive features. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in initiating and regulating immune reactions by promoting antigen-specific T cell activation. In this study, we investigated the effect of human jaw periosteal progenitor cells (JPCs) seeded in beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds on monocyte-derived DC differentiation. Significantly lower numbers of differentiated DCs were observed in the presence of normal (Co) and osteogenically induced (Ob) JPCs-seeded β-TCP constructs. Gene expression analysis revealed significantly lower interleukin-12 subunit p35 (IL-12p35) and interleukin-12 receptor beta 2 (IL-12Rβ2) and pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels in DCs under Ob conditions, while interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene levels were significantly increased. Furthermore, in the presence of JPCs-seeded β-TCP constructs, interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene expression was significantly induced in DCs, particularly under Ob conditions. Analysis of DC protein levels shows that granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) was significantly upregulated in coculture groups. Our results indicate that undifferentiated and osteogenically induced JPCs-seeded β-TCP constructs have an overall inhibitory effect on monocyte-derived DC maturation.
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