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Long-Term Effect of Combination of Creatine Monohydrate Plus β-Hydroxy β-Methylbutyrate (HMB) on Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Anabolic/Catabolic Hormones in Elite Male Endurance Athletes

1
Laboratory of Human Performance, Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Education, Sport Section, University of the Basque Country, 01007 Vitoria, Spain
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Department of Cellular Biology, Histology and Pharmacology. Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Valladolid. Campus de Soria, 42003 Soria, Spain
3
Department of Anatomy and Radiology. Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Valladolid, Campus de Soria, 42003 Soria, Spain
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Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Campus de Soria, University of Valladolid, 42003 Soria, Spain
5
Faculty of Psychology and Education, University of Deusto, Campus of Donostia-San Sebastián, 20012 San Sebastián, Guipúzcoa, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2020, 10(1), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10010140
Received: 13 December 2019 / Revised: 12 January 2020 / Accepted: 13 January 2020 / Published: 15 January 2020
Creatine monohydrate (CrM) and β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) are widely studied ergogenic aids. However, both supplements are usually studied in an isolated manner. The few studies that have investigated the effect of combining both supplements on exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and hormone status have reported controversial results. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine the effect and degree of potentiation of 10 weeks of CrM plus HMB supplementation on EIMD and anabolic/catabolic hormones. This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial where participants (n = 28) were randomized into four different groups: placebo group (PLG; n = 7), CrM group (CrMG; 0.04 g/kg/day of CrM; n = 7), HMB group (HMBG; 3 g/day of HMB; n = 7), and CrM-HMB group (CrM-HMBG; 0.04 g/kg/day of CrM plus 3 g/day of HMB; n = 7). Before (baseline, T1) and after 10 weeks of supplementation (T2), blood samples were collected from all rowers. There were no significant differences in the EIMD markers (aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase) among groups. However, we observed significant differences in CrM-HMBG with respect to PLG, CrMG, and HMBG on testosterone (p = 0.006; η2p = 0.454) and the testosterone/cortisol ratio (T/C; p = 0.032; η2p = 0.349). Moreover, we found a synergistic effect of combined supplementation on testosterone (CrM-HMBG = −63.85% vs. CrMG + HMBG = −37.89%) and T/C (CrM-HMBG = 680% vs. CrMG + HMBG = 57.68%) and an antagonistic effect on cortisol (CrM-HMBG = 131.55% vs. CrMG + HMBG = 389.99%). In summary, the combination of CrM plus HMB showed an increase in testosterone and T/C compared with the other groups after 10 weeks of supplementation. Moreover, this combination presented a synergistic effect on testosterone and T/C and an antagonistic effect on cortisol compared with the sum of individual or isolated supplementation. View Full-Text
Keywords: muscle recovery; exercise-induced muscle damage; lactate dehydrogenase; creatine kinase; testosterone; cortisol; sport nutrition; supplementation muscle recovery; exercise-induced muscle damage; lactate dehydrogenase; creatine kinase; testosterone; cortisol; sport nutrition; supplementation
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Fernández-Landa, J.; Fernández-Lázaro, D.; Calleja-González, J.; Caballero-García, A.; Córdova, A.; León-Guereño, P.; Mielgo-Ayuso, J. Long-Term Effect of Combination of Creatine Monohydrate Plus β-Hydroxy β-Methylbutyrate (HMB) on Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Anabolic/Catabolic Hormones in Elite Male Endurance Athletes. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 140.

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