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Thermochemical Non-Equilibrium in Thermal Plasmas

1
CORIA, UMR CNRS 6614, Normandie Université, 76801 St-Etienne du Rouvray, France
2
CNES, French Spatial Agency, 31400 Toulouse, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 24 December 2018 / Accepted: 25 December 2018 / Published: 1 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SPIG2018)
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Abstract

In this paper, we analyze the departure from equilibrium in two specific types of thermal plasmas. The first type deals with the plasma produced during the atmospheric entry of a spatial vehicle in the upper layers of an atmosphere, specifically the one of Mars. The second type concerns the plasma produced during the laser-matter interaction above the breakdown threshold on a metallic sample. We successively describe the situation and give the way along which modeling tools are elaborated by avoiding any assumption on the thermochemical equilibrium. The key of the approach is to consider the excited states of the different species as independent species. Therefore, they obey to conservation equations involving collisional-radiative contributions related to the other excited states. These contributions are in part due to the influence of electrons and heavy particles having a different translation temperature. This ‘state-to-state’ approach then enables the verification of the excitation equilibrium by analyzing Boltzmann plots. This approach leads finally to a thorough analysis of the progressive coupling until the equilibrium asymptotically observed. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-equilibrium; collisions; radiation; planetary atmospheric entry; laser matter interaction non-equilibrium; collisions; radiation; planetary atmospheric entry; laser matter interaction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Bultel, A.; Morel, V.; Annaloro, J. Thermochemical Non-Equilibrium in Thermal Plasmas. Atoms 2019, 7, 5.

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