# Fusion-Related Ionization and Recombination Data for Tungsten Ions in Low to Moderately High Charge States

## Abstract

**:**

^{q}

^{+}ions are studied. Cross sections and rate coefficients were determined for charge states q ranging from q = 1 to q = 5 for photoionization, for q = 1 up to q = 19 for electron-impact ionization and for q = 18 to q = 21 for electron-ion recombination. An overview, together with a critical assessment of the methods and results is provided.

## 1. Introduction

- electron-impact single ionization$$e+{W}^{q+}\to {W}^{(q+1)+}+2e;\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}q=0,1,2,\dots ,73$$
- electron-impact multiple ionization$$e+{W}^{q+}\to {W}^{(q+n)+}+(n+1)e;\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}q=0,1,2,\dots ,74-n\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{with}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}n=2,3,4,\dots $$
- recombination$$e+{W}^{q+}\to {W}^{(q-1)+}+\text{photos};\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}q=1,2,\dots ,74$$
- (single) photoionization$$hv+{W}^{(q-1)+}\to {W}^{q+}+e;\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}q=1,2,\dots ,74$$
- multiple ionization by one photon$$hv+{W}^{q+}\to {W}^{(q+n)+}+ne;\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}q=0,1,2,\dots ,74-n\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{with}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}n=2,3,4,\dots $$

## 2. Preparation of Ion-Target Beams

#### 2.1. Ion Production and Associated Population of Excited States

^{+}may ultimately proceed via a single electron-atom collision in which the singly charged ions are predominantly produced in their electronic ground state. The ions are extracted before further collisions can happen. Under such conditions, a relatively well defined beam of singly charged A

^{+}ions in their ground level can be made available.

^{q}

^{+}ions (q > 1) requires a number of sequentially-ionizing collisions each providing a sufficient amount of energy to overcome the ionization thresholds for the production of the most highly charged ions desired for experiments. A textbook scenario for the production of highly charged ions is to fix atoms in space and bombard them with ionizing electromagnetic radiation or particles. An Electron-Beam-Ion-Trap (EBIT) [30] comes closest to this scheme. Ions are held in a trap potential for a time span τ and exposed to an intense electron beam of sufficiently high energy ([31–33] and references therein). The number of ionizing collisions with one ion and, hence, the final charge state of the atom is determined by the product n

_{e}τ where n

_{e}is the electron number density in the beam. In an EBIT with a storage time of τ = 100 ms the product n

_{e}τ may easily reach, for example, 10

^{10}s/cm

^{3}.

_{e}τ is responsible for the ion charge states that can be reached. Since the dwell time τ of ions in the plasma cannot be directly controlled and, in particular, cannot be made sufficiently long, the average charge states $\overline{q}$ that can be reached in an ECR ion source with very heavy ions with atomic number Z are restricted to about $\overline{q}=Z/2\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}$ while for lighter ions with low Z one may reach $\overline{q}$ close to Z with efficient production of A

^{Z}

^{+}ions. The number of ions that can be trapped in an EBIT is quite limited and hence, ion currents that can be extracted from an EBIT are small when averaged over time. In contrast, an ECR ion source can provide relatively high currents of multiply charged ions in low to moderately high charge states.

_{i}and then passing them through a sufficiently dense neutral gas or solid target. In the rest frame of the fast moving ions the electrons bound in the target atoms act like fast moving projectiles which can ionize the ion provided the relative velocity v

_{rel}= v

_{i}is sufficiently high. Again the number of ionizing collisions is determined by n

_{e}τ where n

_{e}= n

_{0}Z with n

_{0}the density of the neutral target atoms and τ the time needed by the fast ion to pass the target. These times can be very short depending on the geometrical length (or thickness) of the target. Carbon foils with thickness in the range of 0.1 µm have been used in the present recombination experiments to produce moderately charged tungsten ions with q in the vicinity of 20. Passage times of the order of 20 fs and bound target-electron densities of 6 × 10

^{23}cm

^{−3}result in n

_{e}τ ≈ 10

^{10}s/cm

^{3}similar to what is used in EBIT devices.

^{q}

^{+}ions generated in the source, except for the highest charge state q

_{max}that can be achieved at a given electron energy ${E}_{\mathrm{e}}<{I}_{q}{}_{{}_{max}}$ where ${I}_{q}{}_{{}_{max}}$ is the ionization potential of the ion ${\mathrm{A}}^{q}{}^{{}_{max}+}$. As a result, all the excited states of A

^{q}

^{+}ions with $q<{q}_{\mathrm{max}}$ (and many excited states of the ions ${\mathrm{A}}^{q}{}^{{}_{max}+}$ with the maximum possible charge state) can be populated in the multi-collision scenario discussed in the previous paragraphs. As a result of this interrelationship, the population of excited states during the production of multiply charged ions cannot be avoided.

^{q}

^{+}ions in high ion charge states q for collision experiments. An exemption from this rule is the isoelectronic sequence of lithiumlike ions which do not support low-lying long-lived excited states.

^{q}

^{+}ions are no longer exposed to electron bombardement the excited states decay exponentially with their individual lifetimes. In a typical ion-collision experiment, the ions have to travel from the ion source (or the electron-stripper foil) to the target region where the reactions take place that are to be studied. The distance between this interaction region and the ion-production site is typically several meters in room-sized arrangements and may reach hundreds of meters at accelerators. Flight times are typically between 100 ns and 100 µms so that short-lived excited states can completely decay. Rydberg states featuring an electron with high principal quantum number n can be quenched by electromagnetic fields present in the beam transport line. The remaining long-lived metastable states, however, remain in the beam and their contribution to the measurements has to be considered.

#### 2.2. Generating Beams of Multiply Charged W^{q+} Ions

_{6}, was evaporated and introduced to the plasma chamber of the ion source via a finely tunable leak valve. Mainly by electron collisions the molecular complex was fragmented and then ionized. The dense, hot plasma in an ECR ion source provides a wide spectrum of ion charge states with relatively high ion densities. In the present experiments the ions were continuously extracted from the ECR plasma and accelerated by voltages of 6 to 12 kV. The emerging ion beam was focused and transported through an analyzing dipole magnet to select the ion species with the desired charge state for the experiment. Such a charge-state spectrum of the ions extracted from the ECR ion source, which was operated with W(CO)

_{6}vapor, is shown in Figure 1. Peaks associated with tungsten have a characteristic fingerprint resulting from the natural abundance distribution of the tungsten isotopes with

^{180}W (0.12%),

^{182}W (14.3%),

^{183}W (14.3%),

^{184}W (30.6%), and

^{186}W (28.4%).

^{5+}ions prior to the measurement of the mass spectrum displayed in Figure 1. Ion currents for isotopically resolved

^{186}W

^{5+}were about 17 nA in that experiment. When the source was tuned for output of tungsten ions in charge states near q = 20 the highest charge state that could be observed in a mass spectrum was q = 29 with ion currents of several pA for each of the more abundant tungsten isotopes.

^{−}ions were generated in a suitable cesium-loaded ion source. The negative ions were injected into a tandem accelerator, stripped on their way through the acceleration structure and then stripped again after the acceleration. Clearly, numerous excited states were populated when running the ions through stripper foils. Most of these could be made to decay before the recombination experiments were started. Detailed information will be given in the following subsection and, where appropriate, in the context of the discussion of experimental results.

#### 2.3. Assessment of the Presence of Metastable Excited States in Beams of W^{q+} Ions Used for the Present Experiments

^{+}ions for photoexcitation and electron-impact ionization experiments were produced by employing an ECR ion source [38,39] which is known for its capability to produce a relatively hot plasma. This is favorable for the production of multiply charged ions but it also implies considerable population of metastable excited states. The ground configuration of W

^{+}is 5d

^{4}6s with even parity. The energetically lowest level within this configuration has the spectroscopic notation

^{6}D

_{1/2}. The first excited configurations 5d

^{5}and 5d

^{3}6s

^{2}also have even parity and therefore their decay by electric dipole transitions is forbidden. Hence, the emission of electromagnetic radiation in general must be expected to be very slow. The three lowest configurations comprise 119 levels including the 5d

^{4}(

^{5}D)6s

^{6}D

_{1/2}ground level. Only 74 of all these possible levels are listed in the NIST Atomic Spectra Database [26].

^{+}(5d

^{4}(

^{5}D)6s

^{6}D

_{1/2}) is 16.37 eV [26]. Removal of the 6s electron leads to W

^{2+}(5d

^{4 5}D

_{0}), the ground level of doubly charged tungsten. The 118 excited levels within the 3 energetically lowest (even-parity) configurations of W

^{+}have energies up to 8.77 eV above the ground level and therefore require accordingly less energy than the 16.37 eV necessary to reach the ground level of W

^{2+}from that of W

^{+}. The situation is illustrated in Figure 2.

^{2+}ion yield [40] shown in Figure 2 originated from ionizing electron collisions with W

^{+}ions. The measured onset is at about 12.5 eV well below the ionization threshold of 16.37 eV for W

^{+}ions in their ground state. Clearly, long-lived excited states were present in the W

^{+}parent ion beam employed for this measurement. However, the figure also shows no evidence for contributions from the more highly excited levels within the three energetically lowest configurations. The experimental onset of the W

^{2+}ion yield is between the configuration-averaged threshold energy for the 5d

^{4}6s configuration (at 13.06 eV) and the configuration-averaged threshold energies for the 5d

^{5}and 5d

^{3}6s

^{2}configurations (12.29 eV and 12.27 eV), respectively. This means that the 63 levels within the ground configuration out of the altogether 119 possible levels associated with the first three configurations may have been present in the parent ion beam that was used for the threshold scan in Figure 2. All 63 levels may have contributed with some measurable amount to the total W

^{2+}ion yield observed.

^{q}

^{+}ions with q = 18, 19, 20, 21.

^{18+}is chosen as an example. The lowest level of W

^{18+}is ([Kr]4d

^{10}4f

^{10 5}I

_{8}) [26,41]. For an estimate of excited-state populations that might be present in the beam after preparation of W

^{18+}in a stripper foil, the first excited configurations ([Kr]4d

^{10}4f

^{9}5s) with 396 levels and ([Kr]4d

^{10}4f

^{9}5p) with 1168 levels were included in the considerations together with the ground configuration ([Kr]4d

^{10}4f

^{10}) (107 levels). There are 1671 levels within this set of electron configurations spanning an energy range from 0 up to 114 eV. Excitation energies and lifetimes were calculated by using the AUTOSTRUCTURE atomic structure code [41,42]. Most levels decay with lifetimes much smaller than 1 ms. Only 19 levels including the ground state of W

^{18+}live longer than 10 ms. The ([Kr]4d

^{10}4f

^{10 3}F

_{2}) level was found to have a lifetime of 3.79 × 10

^{8}s, i.e., about 12 years. Hence, there is no way to eliminate this level in an experiment by just waiting for a sufficiently long time.

^{18+}parent ion beam, a system of coupled rate equations [44] describing population and decay of all levels considered in this treatment was solved numerically using the calculated transition lifetimes. Right after the production of the ions in the stripper foil, at time zero, a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of the levels was assumed. The resulting abundances as a function of time are shown in Figure 3. Variation of the temperature in the initial Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution had little effect on these results.

^{18+}ion beam took about 1.5 s. After that time only two levels had survived, the

^{5}I

_{8}ground level with an abundance of 90% and the long-lived

^{3}F

_{2}excited level with an abundance of 10%, both from the 4f

^{10}ground configuration. As a result of the very long lifetime of the excited level, the beam composition 9:1 did not change during the measurement that started after the 1.5 s cooling time.

^{+}, numerous excited levels at least from the ground-state configuration but probably also from excited configurations can contribute to the measured cross section. Level-to-level treatment of cross section contributions is desirable under such conditions but constitutes a very formidable task for theoretical calculations. Even if such calculations are available the fractions of ions in different excited states are not easily determined.

## 3. Overview of the Collisional Data Obtained for W Ions

^{q}

^{+}ions by electron impact had been investigated already more than a decade ago by Stenke et al. [45,46]. The charge states q in these measurements varied from 1 to 10 for single ionization, from 1 to 6 for double ionization and from 1 to 4 for triple ionization. Electron energies in single-ionization measurements covered the range between the respective ionization threshold and maximum energies of 550 eV for q = 1, 1000 eV for q = 2, 3, …, 8 and 5000 eV for q = 9, 10. The data for single ionization of W

^{+}ions by Stenke et al. [45] are in quite good agreement with preceding measurements by Montague and Harrison [47].

^{q}

^{+}ions with q = 60 to 67 had become available by measurements using EBITs [51,52]. The disadvantage of such measurements is in the presence of several different charge states in the trap at a time. Disentangling the observed spectra with respect to ion charge states requires substantial support by theory. To date, a measurement of absolute cross sections or rate coefficients for recombination of tungsten ions has not been accomplished (or attempted) in an EBIT experiment.

#### 3.1. Electron-Impact Ionization

- Direct knock-off removal of an outer-shell electron, termed direct ionization (DI)
- Excitation of an inner-shell electron so that an autoionizing intermediate state is produced; by a subsequent Auger decay an electron is released from the atom or ion; the process is termed excitation-autoionization (EA)
- Dielectronic (radiationless) capture of the incident electron with simultaneous inner-shell excitation reducing the ion charge state by one unit; the resulting highly excited state may then decay by the emission of two electrons (either sequentially or simultaneously) and, thus, an ionized ion with a charge state one unit above that of the parent ion is produced. The whole process is resonant as a result of the first step, the dielectronic capture, which is essentially a time-reversed Auger-decay process

^{q}

^{+}ions has been studied for all charge states q = 1, 2, …, 19 in the energy range from below the ionization threshold to 1000 eV. The present data agree within about 15% with the measurements carried out by Montague and Harrison [47] for W

^{+}and with the results obtained by Stenke et al. for charge states q = 1, 2, …, 10 [45,46]. In most cases the agreement is much better than 15%. An example is provided in Figure 4. The measurements by Stenke et al. [46] for electron-impact double ionization of W

^{+}ions perfectly agree with test measurements carried out by Borovik et al. [40] which were meant to provide a consistency check for the previous versus the new data explored within the present tungsten collisions project. It is interesting to note that there is no obvious hint of the presence of metastable ions in the parent ion beam in this case.

^{q}

^{+}ions were performed for all charge states q by Loch et al. [53] employing the configuration average distorted wave (CADW) approach. For very low charge states, distorted-wave theory tends to overestimate the experimental results. For W

^{4+}, W

^{5+}and W

^{6+}, distorted-wave theory was found to be in reasonable agreement with the measurements by Stenke et al. [45]. Ionization of W

^{9+}with good agreement between theory and experiment has been taken as a proof that the CADW calculations are reliable for higher charge states [53]. However, the cross section for single ionization of W

^{9+}is strongly dominated by direct outer shell ionization, a process that can be quite well predicted by various methods. For configurations where indirect ionization mechanisms become important, it is desirable to test the CADW approach and its suitability to produce reliable cross section data. Therefore, the range of measurements of electron-impact ionization of tungsten ions was extended beyond the data set of Stenke et al. [45,46] going to almost twice the maximum charge state investigated previously (q = 19). In the following, the results obtained for W

^{17+}will be presented as an example and discussed in detail.

^{+}ions. Figure 5 shows such a threshold scan for electron-impact single ionization of W

^{17+}ions. According to calculations with the Cowan code [43] and according to the NIST Atomic Spectra Data Base [26] the ground level is (4f

^{11 4}I

_{15/2}). Its ionization potential is (420.7±1.4) eV which is required to reach the lowest level W

^{18+}(4f

^{10 5}I

_{8}) of the next higher charge state. With the Cowan code 41 levels are found in the ground configuration 4f

^{11}of the parent W

^{17+}ion. Their excitation energies were subtracted from the ground-level ionization potential (420.7 eV) to obtain the locations of the blue vertical bars in Figure 5 which represent the minimum energy required to reach the ground level W

^{18+}(4f

^{10 5}I

_{8}) from the excited levels of W

^{17+}(4f

^{11}). The onset of the measured cross section at about 400 eV indicates that probably all levels in the 4f

^{11}ground configuration of the parent W

^{17+}ion contributed to the measured ionization signal.

^{11}ground configuration of W

^{17+}appears to be somewhat broad in the threshold region investigated in Figure 5, the relative width of that range appears much less dramatic when seen in the broader context of the cross section for single ionization which is shown in Figure 6. As an example for the quality of theoretical calculations for the tungsten ions in the range of investigated charge states the experimental data are compared with theoretical calculations employing distorted-wave approaches to describe DI and EA. Two different approaches for DI have been applied. The larger DI cross section is obtained by using the CADW approach implemented in the GIPPER code which is available online ( http://aphysics2.lanl.gov/cgi-bin/ION/runlanl08d.pl) on the web pages of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

^{17+}(4f

^{11}) are given by the thin black line in Figure 6 with light violet shading. Added to this is the contribution of EA to the cross section which results in the solid brown line. The EA contribution is shaded in a light orange color. It was calculated by Zhang and Kwon [56] using the distorted-wave approach augmented by calculations following the Coulomb-Bethe approximation. Excitations of the 4s, 4p, 4d, and 4f subshells to all states with principal quantum numbers up to n = 36 and angular momentum quantum numbers up to 5 were included. Moreover, the branching ratios for autoionization versus radiative stabilization of multiply excited states were considered. With the many excited states included in the EA calculation by Zhang and Kwon [56] the experimental cross section is quite nicely reproduced. In Figure 6 the sum of CADW DI and EA calculations was shifted by −15 eV to match the experimentally observed onset. This shift appears justified by the substantial energy spreads within given configurations discussed in the context of Figure 5. In the paper by Zhang and Kwon [56] the DI contribution to the cross section was calculated for the ground state of W

^{17+}(4f

^{11}) and for the lowest level of the excited configuration of W

^{17+}(4f

^{10}5s), separately. The solid blue curve in Figure 6 shows the result obtained by using the FAC code [57] for DI of W

^{17+}(4f

^{11}) (also shifted by −15 eV for consistency). Adding the previous EA contribution to this DI result provides the single-ionization cross section as given by Zhang and Kwon. Again with a shift by −15 eV this is shown as the red line in Figure 6 which agrees well with the experimental data.

^{q}

^{+}with q = 11, 12, …, 19 shows that very satisfying results and good agreement of experiment and theory can be found with CADW calculations of DI and EA contributions provided excitation to subshells with very high n and a sufficient range of orbital momentum quantum numbers is included. The necessity for inclusion of high-nl states in DW calculations has also been emphasized recently by Jonauskas et al. [58] for single ionization of W

^{27+}ions.

^{19+}still possesses 55 electrons. For xenon ions with the number of electrons going down from 53 to 37 a distinct increase of resonance contributions to single and multiple ionization has been observed [59–61]. This trend becomes stronger with increasing charge states of xenon ions [62] with the number of electrons finally reduced to 29. Thus it might become necessary to include resonance contributions in calculations of the cross sections for single ionization of the more highly charged tungsten ions.

^{17+}obtained within the present tungsten collisions project. The threshold energy is (882.8 ± 2.8) eV [26]. Even with the uncertainty of this threshold accounted for, the experimental data clearly show an onset of ionization at a lower energy. This onset is compatible with the population of excited levels within the ground-state configuration. In principle, it is possible that double ionization proceeds in a direct process where the incident electron ejects, for example, two 4f electrons or, alternatively, it scatters off one 4f electron which, on its way out, ejects a second electron. It is also possible that a single 4s or 4p electron is released from an excited level of W

^{17+}(4f

^{11}) and some of the resulting W

^{18+}levels can then emit an Auger electron. The n = 3 shell cannot yet be opened at the energy available in the experiments. There is no clear signature from which one might decide which processes are responsible for the observed double ionization. The cross section in the investigated energy range is still below its maximum. At 1000 eV the cross section ratio for double versus single ionization of W

^{17+}is roughly only 1.3%.

#### 3.2. Photoionization

^{+}and W

^{2+}photo-ions from tungsten vapor was observed by Sladeczek et al. [48]. However, no experimental data have been available in the literature for tungsten ions prior to the present project. Direct photoionization of W

^{q}

^{+}ions is included in the calculations by Trzhaskovskaya et al. [63] as time-reversed radiative recombination but is expected to be only a small contribution to the total photoionization cross section. Theoretical work using the many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) approach has been carried out by Boyle et al. [64] for photoionization of neutral tungsten atoms in their 4f

^{14}5s

^{2}5p

^{6}5d

^{4}6s

^{2 5}D

_{0}ground level. Theoretical treatment of photoabsorption using a relativistic Hartree-Fock (RHF) approach was reported by Sladeczek et al. [48] for all five levels of the 5d

^{4}6s

^{2 5}D ground term and for the 5d

^{5}6s

^{7}S

_{3}excited level. Because of the lack of experimental data for ionized tungsten atoms, an attempt was made in the present tungsten project to study photoionization of W

^{q}

^{+}ions in charge states q ≤ 5. This work is close to being finalized.

^{+}and W

^{2+}photo-ion yields which have been approximately normalized to the theoretical cross sections. Also the sum of the two yields is shown which should be close to the photoabsorption cross section. In the energy region investigated here, excitations of an electron from either the 4f or the 5p subshell prevail. A substantial increase of the cross section is observed above 36 eV. This step-like feature is reminiscent of an ionization edge. A relatively prominent narrow resonance peak is seen at a photon energy of about 34 eV. In order to match these step and peak features the theoretical curve has been shifted towards lower energies by 1.3 eV. By the RHF calculations the narrow resonance was identified to be due to photoexcitation hν + W(5p

^{6}5d

^{5}6s

^{7}S

_{3}) → W(5p

^{5}5d

^{5}6s

^{2 7}P

_{4}) and subsequent auto-ionization.

^{4}6s

^{2}ground configuration and the 5d

^{5}6s (first) excited configuration of neutral W

^{0}(both with even parity and therefore not supporting electric-dipole transitions to lower levels) can be present in the tungsten vapor. Assuming statistical population of the 6 possible levels (

^{5}D

_{0,1,2,3,4}) and (

^{7}S

_{3}) with appropriate weighting by the associated Boltzmann factors, the theory curve in the upper panel of Figure 8 was produced. It is in quite reasonable agreement with the experimental findings.

^{5}D

_{0}) ground level. It is interesting to compare the results of RHF and MBPT calculations for this case. Figure 9 shows the results of the two theoretical approaches for the photoionization of the

^{5}D

_{0}ground level of a neutral tungsten atom. Both calculations are on independently absolute scales both in cross sections and energies. Given the complexity of the problem with at least two open subshells after the excitation process, the calculated results are in remarkable agreement with one another. Boyle et al. [64] compared their result for photoionization of the W(

^{5}D

_{0}) ground level with the data from the DLP experiment of Costello et al. [50]. The agreement between theory and experiment was not really satisfying. Clearly, the possibility for the presence of atoms in excited levels in the initial tungsten atom ensemble has to be considered. The tungsten atoms were brought from the solid into the gas phase by one of the two lasers used in the DLP technique. Accordingly, population of metastable levels has to be expected. Unfortunately, the population of excited levels in the DLP experiment is not known leaving ambiguity in any comparison with theory.

^{4}6s

^{2 5}D

_{3}) level calculated by Sladeczek et al. [48]. The DLP measurements were not absolute. Therefore, the experimental signal was approximately normalized to the theoretical curve. Justification for the choice of the calculation for the W(5d

^{4}6s

^{2 5}D

_{3}) level is nothing else but the relatively good agreement between the experimental and theoretical cross-section dependence on the photon energy. The overall course of the experimental cross-section function with two broad peaks approximately separated by an energy that corresponds to the 5p

_{3/2}– 5p

_{1/2}fine structure splitting, is reproduced amazingly well by the theoretical calculation for a selected initial level of the tungsten atoms. Very recently, Ballance and McLaughlin have carried out large-scale R-matrix calculations for several levels of the neutral tungsten atom [65]. Their statistically weighted sum of cross-section contributions arising from different initial levels of primary tungsten atoms is in moderate agreement with the experimental results used for the comparisons (e.g., the data obtained by Costello et al. [50]).

^{q}

^{+}ions in charge states q =1,2,3,4 and 5 are carried out at the photon-ion merged-beam facility of the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley. The measurements are accompanied by large-scale close-coupling calculations within the Dirac-Coulomb R-matrix (DARC) approximation (R-matrix theory using the Dirac Hamiltonian was formulated and applied to electron-atom scattering by Chang [66]. His code was substantially rewritten by Norrington and Grant [67] for calculating electron scattering from highly charged iron ions. Since then further developments have led to a parallelized version of the DARC code package [68] which can be applied to electronic and photonic collisions with atoms and ions. A recent set of further references has been provided by Müller et al. [69].). This work is still in progress, however, final results are expected to be published within the current year. While the photoionization spectra of W

^{0}, W

^{1+}, W

^{2+}, and W

^{3+}are characterized by very broad peak structures, a transition to narrow resonance features starts with W

^{4+}and leads to a very complex photoionization resonance structure in W

^{5+}. This behaviour is similar to the findings of experiments on the Ce isonuclear sequence by Habibi et al. [70].

^{4+}ions [71]. The calculated and measured data were normalized to the peak cross section and, hence, are given in percent of the maximum. Different from the data shown in the previous figures for neutral tungsten, the cross section for W

^{4+}shows detailed resonance structures. The experimental data obviously contain some contribution from parent ions in the 5d6s excited configuration. This can be inferred from the comparison of the measured onset of the photoionization signal and the threshold energies indicated by the vertical bars. The resonance features at energies 44 to 47 eV, i.e., below the ground-state ionization threshold, are most likely associated with photoexcitation-autoionization processes which start from metastable levels in the 5d

^{2}and 5d6s parent ion configurations and probably produce autoionizing intermediate levels with 4f vacancies. Subsequently, these levels decay to W

^{5+}final states. The theoretical results in this comparison do not show the 44-to-47 eV feature. They were obtained by DARC calculations including 52 close-coupling states to represent photoionization of the 5s

^{2}5p

^{6}5d

^{2 3}F

_{J}levels of the ground term and a statistically weighted distribution of ions in states with J = 2, 3, 4 was assumed. Calculations including 385 instead of 52 states are presently underway.

#### 3.3. Electron-Ion Recombination

^{q}

^{+}ions in a plasma, extensive production of theoretical data on recombination has been initiated. Radiative recombination of tungsten ions was extensively explored using advanced theoretical techniques [63]. Dielectronic recombination data are being produced in large-scale calculations using existing atomic physics program packages. With emphasis on theory, the published work on dielectronic recombination of tungsten ions has been compiled recently by Li et al. [72].

^{18+}, W

^{19+}, W

^{20+}and W

^{21+}. Experimental and theoretical results for electron-ion recombination of W

^{18+}and W

^{20+}have been published by Spruck et al. [41] and Schippers et al. [78], respectively. Analysis of the data for W

^{19+}and W

^{21+}is in progress.

_{rel}), where ${\overrightarrow{v}}_{\text{rel}}$ is the vector of relative velocity between the collision partners and ${v}_{\text{rel}}\left|{\overrightarrow{v}}_{\text{rel}}\right|$ its absolute value. The distribution function $f({\overrightarrow{v}}_{\text{rel}})$ of the relative velocities between the colliding particles can usually be assumed to be independent of the location $\overrightarrow{r}$.

_{app}= α/v

_{rel}. The difference between σ and σ

_{app}is that the latter is obtained from σ by convolution with the experimental energy distribution function.

_{║}and v

_{⊥}denote the components of $\overrightarrow{v}$ in the perpendicular and parallel directions with respect to the electron beam axis, respectively. With T

_{║}= T

_{⊥}and v

_{av}= 0, Equation (9) represents an isotropic Maxwellian electron velocity distribution. In a beam of accelerated electrons, however, T

_{║}≪ T

_{⊥}. Therefore, Equation (9) with T

_{║}< T

_{⊥}is termed a “flattened” Maxwellian distribution. The width of this distribution determines the experimental electron energy spread

_{SR}result from Equation (7) with the specific velocity (and, hence, also energy-dependent) distribution function given by Equation (9). The associated energy distribution is narrow for relative energies E > 0.1 eV. Dividing α

_{SR}by the velocity v

_{av}results in a relatively good approximation to σ

_{app}as long as ΔE ≪ E. At lower energies the calculation of σ

_{app}is meaningless and, therefore, the presentation of storage-ring recombination rate coefficients α

_{SR}is usually preferred over the display of apparent cross sections σ

_{app}. As an example, storage-ring recombination rate coefficients in the low-energy regime are provided for W

^{18+}[41] in Figure 12. The figure covers a range of electron-ion collision energies from 2 × 10

^{−4}to 20 eV. The experimental data at these energies are described quite well by “partitioned and damped” (PD) calculations [41,79]. The intermediate-coupling (IC) theory commonly used with good success in calculations of dielectronic recombination is much below the experimental data. Detailed analysis shows that one can neglect the recombination contribution of the metastable W

^{18+}(4f

^{10 3}F

_{2}) level discussed in the context of Figure 3. Within their total error bars the experimental results represent the recombination of ground-level W

^{18+}(4f

^{10 5}I

_{8}).

^{−8}cm

^{3}s

^{−1}at 70 µeV. The enhancement effect is not expected to contribute to the rate coefficients required in (fusion) plasma modeling.

^{18+}has a maximum storage-ring recombination rate coefficient α

_{SR}= 0.14 × 10

^{−8}cm

^{3}s

^{−1}at 70 µeV, i.e., it contributes only 0.06% to the measured recombination rate at very low relative energies. This comparison illustrates the enormous size of the observed recombination rate of W

^{18+}below 20 eV with a steep increase towards the meV region. Therefore, two figures are used to illustrate the results for recombination in the investigated energy range. Figure 13 shows α

_{SR}for W

^{18+}in the high-energy range up to 265 eV. Symbols and lines have already been discussed in the context of Figure 12.

_{SR}are specific to electron-ion merged-beam experiments characterized by individual parameters such as the transverse and longitudinal temperatures in the electron beam. For plasma modeling one needs rate coefficients based on a suitable energy distribution function describing the situation in a generic plasma. A common choice for that is an isotropic Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of electron-ion collision energies. The derivation of such plasma rate coefficients α(T) from storage-ring rate coefficients is straightforward [89]. They are determined from the apparent cross sections σ

_{app}= α

_{SR}/v

_{rel}(see above) measured at storage rings in a merged-beam geometry

_{e}, the electron rest mass. In the storage ring measurements the ensembles of colliding particles, the electrons and ions, have a well defined average relative velocity v

_{rel}. As a consequence, high resolution is obtained in the whole range of accessible energies and hence, cross sections can be measured in great detail. In contrast to that, convolution of the measured data following Equation (11) leads to broad smooth dependences of plasma rate coefficients α

_{P}(T) on temperature, where most of the details in the cross sections are washed out. Nevertheless, the details of the cross sections at low energies have a strong influence on the size of plasma rate coefficients even at comparatively high temperatures.

^{18+}derived from the experimental data displayed in Figures 12 and 13. Data previously entered into the ADAS data base significantly differ from the new theoretical and experimental data at temperatures below kT = 20 eV with deviations of more than two orders of magnitude. Even in the temperature range where W

^{18+}is formed in a plasma the ADAS data are smaller than the experimental rate coefficients by factors 5 to 10. The new theory results labeled IC and PD are much closer to the experiment and provide good data for the temperature region of highest interest in plasma physics and particularly in fusion research.

^{20+}, is shown in Figure 15. Actually, it was the first recombination measurement within the tungsten collisions project discussed in this overview. The ion charge state had been chosen because W

^{20+}is isoelectronic with Au

^{25+}, for which previous experiments [90] had shown excessive recombination rate coefficients. Indeed, recombination of W

^{20+}ions reached up to about 2 × 10

^{−6}cm

^{3}s

^{−1}at 1 meV relative energy. The inset of Figure 15 emphasizes the low-energy region of the recombination measurement but leaves out the enhancement at the lowest energies below 1 meV which is not relevant for plasma modeling. The result of the statistical theory developed by Dzuba et al. [91] is in fairly good agreement with the experiment. Also the fully partitioned theoretical calculation by Badnell et al. [79] reproduces the measured storage-ring recombination rate coefficient quite well at energies below 1 eV. This treatment overestimates the experimental findings with discrepancies increasing with the electron-ion collision energy. The intermediate coupling calculation, in turn, strongly underestimates the experimental data at energies up to about 40 eV but then approaches the magnitude of the experimental rate coefficients. The details of the resonance structures observed in the experiment are not reproduced, however. The calculation by Dzuba et al. [92] is in slightly better agreement than the intermediate-coupling result.

^{28+}[96,97] and Au

^{25+}[90] ions, merged-beam recombination rate coefficients as high as about 1.7 × 10

^{−7}cm

^{3}s

^{−1}and even up to 1.2 × 10

^{−6}cm

^{3}s

^{−1}, respectively, were measured at relative energies below 0.1 meV, respectively. The observed maximum rates depended on the electron density and the magnetic field present in the electron-ion interaction region. Their size is influenced by the merged-beam recombination-enhancement effect briefly addressed already above. This effect showed some characteristic dependencies on experimental parameters such as electron-beam temperatures and -as just mentioned-magnetic field and electron density [82–85]. This additional enhancement is understood to amplify the existing recombination rate coefficient at relative energies below about 0.1 meV ([88] and references therein) of all ions including completely stripped nuclei. Factor-of-three enhancements have been typical for this effect at the Heidelberg storage ring TSR [82,83]. However, even when the enhancement of merged-beam recombination at very low relative energies by factors around 3 is considered and subtracted from the observed total recombination rate, the remaining recombination rate coefficients of the multi-electron ions mentioned above are enormously high and are of a magnitude that is orders of magnitude above expected radiative recombination rate coefficients for ions in such high charge states.

^{53+}was subject to electron cooling [98] stimulated further recombination measurements with the goal to explain the short cooling lifetime with high electron-ion recombination rates. Multi-electron ions Au

^{49+}, Au

^{50+}, and Au

^{51+}were studied at the TSR storage ring in Heidelberg [99] and Pb

^{53+}together with Pb

^{54+}[100] at the CRYRING in Stockholm. More recently, the recombination of Au

^{20+}was shown to exhibit a similar effect [101]. Merged-beam recombination rates below 0.1 meV were about 8.7 × 10

^{−6}cm

^{3}s

^{−1}for Pb

^{53+}and about 1.9 × 10

^{−6}cm

^{3}s

^{−1}for iso-electronic Au

^{50+}. The neighbor charge states of Au

^{50+}were found to have lower but still very high recombination rates [99]. The Au

^{20+}measurement revealed a recombination rate of 4 × 10

^{−7}cm

^{3}s

^{−1}.

^{20+}is illustrated by Figure 16. The recombination spectrum of W

^{20+}is predominantly associated with core excitations of the ([Kr]4d

^{10}4f

^{8 7}F

_{6}ground level. There are 292 excited levels within the ground configuration. They have excitation energies E

_{exc}of up to about 52 eV. Resonance energies E(n) of associated dielectronic-capture states [16] with configurations (4f

^{8}nl) can be estimated with the assumption of hydrogenic electron binding energies

_{exc}= 52 eV one finds that n = 11 is the smallest quantum number yielding a positive resonance energy. For smaller E

_{exc}the minimum principal quantum number n that provides non-negative resonance energies E(n) is greater than 11. For principal quantum numbers n ≥ 11 Equation (12) should give quite accurate resonance energies.

^{20+}experiment the cutoff principal quantum number was n

_{max}= 72. The smallest excitation energy of the W

^{20+}ground configuration which yields non-negative E(n) for n = 72 is 1.05 eV. With these boundary conditions the density of states (DOS) within the $(4{f}_{i}^{8}nl)$ manifold with n ≤ 72 which could contribute to the recombination spectrum in the energy range 1.05 to 52 eV was calculated employing statistical weights 2n

^{2}(2j + 1)of the associated recombination resonances. As can be seen from Figure 16 the resulting DOS is enormous and amounts to more than 10

^{7}states per eV for energies near 5.28 eV. Clearly, such a situation calls for new theoretical approaches. “Classical” treatment of dielectronic recombination is insufficient to deal with the huge density of resonant channels featured by many-electron systems with open high–angular-momentum subshells. This was recognized in a theoretical study by Gribakin et al. [102] addressing the excessive electron-ion recombination of multi-electron ions as a consequence of high level densities of chaotic multiply-excited electron states. A statistical approach was therefore applied to the analysis of this complex system.

^{25+}recombination by Flambaum et al. [103] provided remarkable agreement with the experimental findings. The theory was developed further by Gribakin and Sahoo [104] considering strong configuration mixing between doubly excited states and multiply excited states which account for the large electron recombination rates. The recombination measurements with tungsten ions stimulated further work [91,92] and the results for electron recombination with W

^{20+}are close to the experimental data. Parallel to this work by Dzuba et al. Ballance et al. [105] and Badnell et al. [79] developed theoretical methods to describe recombination of complex ions such as Au

^{20+}and W

^{20+}, respectively. By assuming complete (chaotic) mixing of near-threshold autoionizing states their results came into agreement with experiment at energies below about 2 eV.

^{18+}the huge storage-ring recombination rate coefficients found for W

^{20+}at energies below about 2 eV influence the (Maxwell-Boltzmann averaged) plasma recombination rate coefficients even at kT = 200 eV. Comparisons of theory and experiment are provided in Figure 17. The data previously used in the ADAS data base differ from the experimentally derived plasma rate coefficient by almost three orders of magnitude. Even in the temperature range where W

^{20+}is formed in a plasma the ADAS data are smaller than the experimental rate coefficients by factors of 5 to 10. The new theory results by Badnell et al. [79] and by Dzuba et al. [91,92] are much closer to the experiment.

## 4. Conclusions

^{18+}, W

^{19+}, W

^{20+}, and W

^{21+}in the energy range from 0 to several 100 eV. The experiments show that the total recombination cross sections, especially at low energies, are orders of magnitude above radiative recombination. New theoretical attempts to describe the experimental data use approaches characterized as “damped and partitioned” (Badnell et al.) and “statistical” (Flambaum et al.). The plasma rate coefficients obtained by theory and experiment as a function of temperature are now beginning to converge.

^{1+}to W

^{19+}at electron energies from below the ionization thresholds up to 1000 eV and up to higher energies for tungsten ions in lower charge states. A problem in all measurements with multiply charged ions and particularly also in the ionization measurements on tungsten ions is the possible presence of ions in long-lived excited states in the parent ion beam. Even when ions are stored for several seconds prior to the start of a measurement, metastable ions may still be present. The population of such excited states can be detected by suitable experimental techniques. Fine energy scans with very good statistics at small energy steps reveal ionization thresholds of different beam components [107]. Theoretical modeling of the resulting apparent cross sections which are typically measured with uncertainties of less than 10% provides information about the fractions of beam components and hence reliable cross sections for the ground state of the investigated ion, which is usually the dominant beam component. It is pointed out that a plasma of course also contains long lived excited states whose ionization cross sections are needed.

^{19+}to Xe

^{25+}, are W

^{39+}to W

^{45+}. Calculations of cross sections in this range of charge states using the R-matrix approach should be feasible and might help to clarify if resonances are important for these ions.

^{0}, W

^{1+}, W

^{2+}, W

^{3+}, W

^{4+}, and W

^{5+}. Single ionization and in some cases also multiple ionization was studied. Absolute cross sections with high energy resolution were determined over wide energy ranges. The idea for the measurements with tungsten ions was to exploit, firstly, the time-reversal relation between recombination and photoionization [109–120], and secondly, to contribute to the exploration of the electronic structure of tungsten ions. It is known that the plasma density in a fusion device is low so that absorption of high-energy photons is unlikely. Thus, cross sections for photoionization are not of prime importance for fusion. It is satisfying to see, however, that state-of-the-art theory including R-matrix approaches can reproduce the main features of the experimental results. This is important since R-matrix calculations can also be used to obtain electron-impact ionization, excitation and recombination cross sections. Thus, photoionization is a good testing area for R-matrix approaches to fusion-relevant processes.

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix: Plasma Rate Coefficients

^{18+}and W

^{20+}initially in their ground levels are provided in tabular form in this appendix to emphasize their importance.

**Table A1.**Experimentally derived plasma rate coefficients ${\alpha}_{\mathrm{P}}^{rec}$ for recombination of W

^{18+}with electrons [41]. The uncertainties of these rate coefficients change with temperature and are approximately ±10% at kT = 10 eV and ±37% at kT = 150 eV.

Plasma temperature [eV] | ${\alpha}_{\mathrm{P}}^{rec}\left[{\mathrm{cm}}^{3}{\mathrm{s}}^{-}{}^{1}\right]$ |
---|---|

1 | 4.88 × 10^{−8} |

1.5 | 4.36 × 10^{−8} |

2 | 3.98 × 10^{−8} |

3 | 3.42 × 10^{−8} |

5 | 2.70 × 10^{−8} |

7 | 2.22 × 10^{−8} |

10 | 1.74 × 10^{−8} |

15 | 1.26 × 10^{−8} |

20 | 9.78 × 10^{−9} |

30 | 6.66 × 10^{−9} |

50 | 3.96 × 10^{−9} |

70 | 2.76 × 10^{−9} |

100 | 1.85 × 10^{−9} |

150 | 1.15 × 10^{−9} |

200 | 8.04 × 10^{−10} |

300 | 4.78 × 10^{−10} |

500 | 2.40 × 10^{−10} |

700 | 1.51 × 10^{−10} |

1000 | 9.07 × 10^{−11} |

**Table A2.**Experimentally derived plasma rate coefficients ${\alpha}_{\mathrm{P}}^{rec}$ for recombination of W

^{20+}with electrons [93]. The uncertainties of these rate coefficients are approximately ±20%.

Plasma temperature [eV] | ${\alpha}_{\mathrm{P}}^{rec}\left[{\mathrm{cm}}^{3}{\mathrm{s}}^{-}{}^{1}\right]$ |
---|---|

1 | 1.37 × 10^{−7} |

1.5 | 1.03 × 10^{−7} |

2 | 8.34 × 10^{−8} |

3 | 6.09 × 10^{−8} |

5 | 4.01 × 10^{−8} |

7 | 3.02 × 10^{−8} |

10 | 2.23 × 10^{−8} |

15 | 1.55 × 10^{−8} |

20 | 1.19 × 10^{−8} |

30 | 8.02 × 10^{−9} |

50 | 4.70 × 10^{−9} |

70 | 3.23 × 10^{−9} |

100 | 2.11 × 10^{−9} |

150 | 1.26 × 10^{−9} |

200 | 8.65 × 10^{−10} |

300 | 4.98 × 10^{−10} |

500 | 2.42 × 10^{−10} |

700 | 1.49 × 10^{−10} |

1000 | 8.88 × 10^{−11} |

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**Figure 1.**Ion currents extracted from an Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance (ECR) ion source operated with W(CO)

_{6}vapor and measured as a function of the magnetic flux density B

_{1}of the dipole analyzing magnet. B

_{1}was calibrated to provide the mass-over-charge ratios of the ions detected. The most prominent ion species associated with the presence of tungsten are indicated in the figure. The complete mass spectrum reaches up to $\mathrm{W}{\left(\mathrm{CO}\right)}_{6}^{+}$ ions. For the lower charge states W

^{q}

^{+}the natural isotopes of tungsten are completely resolved. Peaks in the mass ranges around 52 and 80 are not identified. They are probably associated with hydrocarbon molecules residing on surfaces. The strongest peak appears to be due to CO

^{+}ions. Here as well as for several other peaks the current amplifier was obviously saturated.

**Figure 2.**W

^{2+}ion yields (in arbitrary units) arising from electron-impact single ionization of W

^{+}ions [40]. The yield was recorded as a function of incident-electron energy. The vertical blue bars show the threshold energies relative to the lowest of the 74 levels within the 5d

^{4}6s, 5d

^{5}and 5d

^{3}6s

^{2}configurations whose excitation energies are listed in the NIST Atomic Spectra Database [26]. The vertical black bars represent the threshold energies of the 63 levels within the 5d

^{4}6s ground configuration while the red bars show the threshold energies of the 56 levels within the first excited, 5d

^{5}and 5d

^{3}6s

^{2}, configurations as calculated with the Cowan code [43]. The lowest ionization potential of W

^{+}of 16.37 eV was taken from the NIST Atomic Spectra Database [26] for the blue, black and red bars. The green bars are related to the average energies of the 5d

^{4}6s, 5d

^{5}and 5d

^{3}6s

^{2}configurations using statistically weighted level energies. These excitation energies were calculated by employing the Cowan code [43] and then subtracted from the ground-state ionization potential of 16.37 eV to obtain the locations of the green bars. The observed yield (shaded area) below the ground-state ionization potential clearly indicates the presence of metastable states in the W

^{+}parent ion beam.

**Figure 3.**Relative populations of levels within the W

^{18+}(4f

^{10}), W

^{18+}(4f

^{9}5s) and W

^{18+}(4f

^{9}5p) configurations with a Maxwell-Boltzmann starting condition [41]. The solid red line shows the sum of all the 1652 short-lived levels which are essentially gone before 1 s has passed. The solid blue line is the relative population of the ground level and the green line represents the population of the very long-lived ([Kr]4d

^{10}4f

^{10 3}F

_{2}) level. The thin solid lines were obtained for the remaining 17 levels, all with relatively long lifetimes between 10 and 629 ms. For further details see the text.

**Figure 4.**Comparison of experimental cross sections for electron-impact double ionization of W

^{+}measured previously by Stenke et al. [46] and a test measurement [40] of the same cross section carried out in the frame of the present tungsten collisions project. The vertical bar indicates the threshold for reaching the ground level of W

^{3+}from the ground level of W

^{+}.

**Figure 5.**Threshold-energy region of single ionization of W

^{17+}ions. The small circles with error bars represent the fine energy scan of the cross-section function, the large red-shaded circles are the absolute cross section measurements to which the scan was normalized [55]. The ionization threshold for ground-level W

^{17+}to ground-level W

^{18+}transitions (

^{4}I

_{15/2}→

^{5}I

_{8}) is within the range spanned by the two brown vertical bars [26]. The blue vertical bars show the minimum energies required to reach the W

^{18+}(4f

^{10 5}I

_{8}) ground level from the excited levels within the ground configuration 4f

^{11}of the parent W

^{17+}ion. The green vertical bar represents the configuration average energy needed to produce W

^{18+}(4f

^{10 5}I

_{8}).

**Figure 6.**Measured and calculated cross section for single ionization of W

^{17+}ions. The red-shaded circles with error bars are the results of absolute cross section measurements and their total uncertainties given at a 2σ confidence level [55]. The closely spaced orange-shaded circles represent the energy-scan measurements carried out by Rausch et al. [55]. The scan result is normalized to the absolute data. The ionization potentials of the 41 levels within the 4f

^{11}ground configuration of W

^{17+}are represented by the vertical blue lines. The thin black line with violet shading is the result of configuration-average distorted wave (CADW) calculations for direct single ionization (DI) knocking off an electron from the 4p, 4d or 4f subshell. Added to this is the contribution of excitation auto-ionization (EA) processes starting from the 4s, 4p, 4d, and 4f subshells. The EA contribution was calculated by Zhang and Kwon [56] and is given by the light-orange-shaded area. Different from the total single-ionization cross section obtained by this summation (the solid brown line) Zhang and Kwon using the distorted-wave approach implemented in the FAC code obtained the solid red curve based on their result (the solid blue curve) for DI of the 4p, 4d, and 4f subshells. All theory curves are shifted by −15 eV relative to their original energy axis.

**Figure 7.**Measured cross section for electron-impact double ionization of W

^{17+}ions [55]. The blue-shaded circles represent absolute cross section measurements with their error bars. The densely spaced yellow-shaded circles are the results of an energy-scan measurement which was normalized to the absolute data points. The vertical arrow shows the ionization threshold for the ground-level W

^{17+}to ground-level W

^{19+}transition [26]. The vertical bars illustrate the associated uncertainty limits.

**Figure 8.**Cross sections for photoionization of neutral W atoms. The upper panel shows the result of relativistic Hartree-Fock (RHF) calculations for photoabsorption by neutral tungsten atoms [48] brought into the gas phase by evaporating tungsten at 3200 K. The resulting population of long-lived excited levels has been considered. For further details see text. The lower panel shows the relative yields of W

^{+}(solid red line) and W

^{2+}(solid brown line) photo-ions produced from vaporized neutral tungsten [48]. The solid black line is the sum of the yields of W

^{+}and W

^{2+}ions. The yield measurements were normalized to the theoretical cross section provided in the upper panel. The theoretical cross section was shifted by −1.3 eV to match the prominent narrow resonance feature found in the experiment at about 34 eV. This resonance is associated with photoexcitation W(5p

^{6}5d

^{5}6s

^{7}S

_{3}) → W(5p

^{5}5d

^{5}6s

^{2 7}P

_{4}) and subsequent auto-ionization.

**Figure 9.**Theoretical cross sections for single photoionization of neutral W atoms in their 5d

^{4}6s

^{5}D

_{0}ground-level. The solid red line with yellow shading is the result of many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) calculations by Boyle et al. [64] and the solid black line with cross-hatching is the relativistic Hartree-Fock (RHF) calculation by Sladeczek et al. [48]. No normalization procedures or energy shifts were applied to the two data sets.

**Figure 10.**Cross sections for photoabsorption by neutral W atoms. The solid brown line with cross-hatching is the experimental result obtained by Costello et al. using the dual laser plasma (DLP) technique. Without knowing the distribution of excited states of the parent neutral tungsten atoms a comparison is made with the RHF calculation carried out by Sladeczek et al. [48] for W atoms in the 4f

^{14}5s

^{2}5p

^{6}5d

^{4}6s

^{2 5}D

_{3}level. The experimental data are normalized to the calculated cross section.

**Figure 11.**Cross section for single photoionization of W

^{4+}ions. Theoretical and experimental results are preliminary. They are shown with their maxima normalized to 100%. The solid brown line is the experimental result obtained by Müller et al. [71] at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at a resolution of 200 meV and the solid orange line with yellow shading represents the associated calculation [71] using the Dirac-Atomic R-matrix codes (DARC) with a 52-state basis set to describe photoionization of the 5d

^{2 2}D term. The theoretical data were convoluted with a 200 meV FWHM (full-width-at-half-maximum) Gaussian to simulate the experimental energy spread. Ionization energies of W

^{4+}levels within the 5d

^{2}ground-state configuration and the 5d6s excited configuration are indicated by blue and red vertical bars, respectively. The threshold energies are from the NIST Atomic Spectra Database [26] and from a calculation using the Cowan code [43]. The experimental energy axis has an absolute uncertainty of no more than 0.1 eV.

**Figure 12.**Measured and calculated storage-ring rate coefficient for recombination of W

^{18+}with an electron: low-energy range [41]. The experimental results are displayed as green circles with statistical error bars. The solid red curve is a conventional intermediate-coupling (IC) calculation for dielectronic recombination [41]. The blue dashed curve is the result of the fully partitioned calculation including autoionizing (and radiative) damping (PD) [41].

**Figure 13.**Measured and calculated storage-ring rate coefficient for recombination of W

^{18+}with an electron: high-energy range [41]. The experimental results are displayed as green circles with statistical error bars. The solid red curve is a conventional intermediate-coupling (IC) calculation for dielectronic recombination [41]. The blue dashed curve is the result of the fully partitioned calculation including autoionizing (and radiative) damping (PD) [41].

**Figure 14.**Plasma rate coefficients for recombination of W

^{18+}with an electron [41]. The shaded area indicates the temperature range where W

^{18+}is expected to be produced with significant abundances in plasma under equilibrium conditions [9]. Experimentally derived rate coefficients are represented by the solid red line. The combined statistical and systematic uncertainty is indicated by error bars. The solid blue (labeled IC: intermediate-coupling theory) and the short dashed green line (labeled PD: partitioned and damped statistical theory) are the theoretical rate coefficients for electron-ion recombination of W

^{18+}in a plasma. The dash-dot line is the plasma recombination rate coefficient from the ADAS database. The dashed curve is the calculated radiative-recombination (RR) plasma rate coefficient. For details see text.

**Figure 15.**Measured and calculated storage-ring rate coefficient for recombination of W

^{20+}with an electron [93]. The inset shows the theoretical and experimental low-energy results on a double-logarithmic scale. The green circles with statistical error bars represent the experimental data. The brown dot-dashed line is obtained from the fully partitioned calculation by Badnell et al. [79]. The solid red curve is a conventional intermediate-coupling calculation for dielectronic recombination [79]. The long-dashed green line shows the results of a calculation of radiative recombination (RR) carried out on the basis of an approach for hydrogenlike levels [94]. The blue dash-dot-dot line is the statistical theory for chaotic resonances in the low-energy range by Dzuba et al. [91]. The solid blue line is the result obtained by that same group for the high-energy region [92].

**Figure 16.**Density of states (DOS) of W

^{19+}ions that can be populated by dielectronic recombination of W

^{20+}comprising all doubly excited 4f

^{8}nl states above the W

^{20+}(4f

^{8 7}F

_{6}) ground level with n ≤ 72 [93].

**Figure 17.**Derived experimental and theoretical plasma rate coefficient for recombination of W

^{20+}with an electron. Left scale: Experimentally derived rate coefficient for recombination of W

^{20+}ions in a plasma (solid red line) including radiative recombination (RR) and dielectronic recombination with resonance energies below 140 eV [93]. Error bars denote the 20% experimental systematic uncertainty. The long-dashed red curve results from the experimental data displayed in Figure 15 with the collision energies restricted to the range 47 to 140 eV. The dash-dot violet curve is the recombination rate coefficient from the ADAS database. The short-dashed green curve is the result of a hydrogenic approach [106] to the radiative-recombination (RR) rate coefficient. The dotted magenta line is from the intermediate coupling calculation by Badnell et al. [79]. The shaded area between thin violet lines represents the results of the statistical theory of Dzuba et al. [91,92]. The width indicated by the shaded area results from the relative arbitrariness of the interpolations between their low-energy [91] and high-energy [92] results. Right scale: The thin full black line represents the calculated fractional abundance of W

^{20+}in a fusion plasma [9] as a function of temperature.

© 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Müller, A. Fusion-Related Ionization and Recombination Data for Tungsten Ions in Low to Moderately High Charge States. *Atoms* **2015**, *3*, 120-161.
https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms3020120

**AMA Style**

Müller A. Fusion-Related Ionization and Recombination Data for Tungsten Ions in Low to Moderately High Charge States. *Atoms*. 2015; 3(2):120-161.
https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms3020120

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Müller, Alfred. 2015. "Fusion-Related Ionization and Recombination Data for Tungsten Ions in Low to Moderately High Charge States" *Atoms* 3, no. 2: 120-161.
https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms3020120