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Evaluation of the UMASEP-10 Version 2 Tool for Predicting All >10 MeV SEP Events of Solar Cycles 22, 23 and 24
 
 
Article

M-Class Solar Flares in Solar Cycles 23 and 24: Properties and Space Weather Relevance

1
Institute of Astronomy and National Astronomical Observatory (IANAO), Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, BG-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria
2
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG), Helwan EG-11421, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Fiona Simpson, Karsten Bahr, Giuseppe Consolini and Athanasios Papaioannou
Universe 2022, 8(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8010039
Received: 25 November 2021 / Revised: 4 January 2022 / Accepted: 5 January 2022 / Published: 10 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Space Weather and Space Climate of Our Solar System)
A comprehensive statistical analysis on the properties and accompanied phenomena of all M-class solar flares (as measured in soft X-rays) in the last two solar cycles (1996–2019) is presented here with a focus on their space weather potential. The information about the parent active region and the underlying sunspot (Hale) type is collected for each case, where possible, in order to identify photospheric precondition as precursors for the solar flare eruption or confinement. Associations with coronal mass ejections, solar energetic particles, and interplanetary radio emissions are also evaluated and discussed as possible proxies for flare eruption and subsequent space weather relevance. The results show that the majority (∼80%) of the analyzed M-class flares are of β, β-γ, and β-γ-δ magnetic field configuration. The M-class population of flares is accompanied by CMEs in 41% of the cases and about half of the flare sample has been associated with radio emission from electron beams. A much lower association (≲10%) is obtained with shock wave radio signatures and energetic particles. Furthermore, a parametric scheme is proposed in terms of occurrence rates between M-class flares and a variety of accompanied solar phenomena as a function of flare sub-classes or magnetic type. This study confirms the well-known reduced but inevitable space weather importance of M-class flares. View Full-Text
Keywords: space weather; solar flares; coronal mass ejections; solar radio bursts; solar energetic particles space weather; solar flares; coronal mass ejections; solar radio bursts; solar energetic particles
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MDPI and ACS Style

Miteva, R.; Samwel, S.W. M-Class Solar Flares in Solar Cycles 23 and 24: Properties and Space Weather Relevance. Universe 2022, 8, 39. https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8010039

AMA Style

Miteva R, Samwel SW. M-Class Solar Flares in Solar Cycles 23 and 24: Properties and Space Weather Relevance. Universe. 2022; 8(1):39. https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8010039

Chicago/Turabian Style

Miteva, Rositsa, and Susan W. Samwel. 2022. "M-Class Solar Flares in Solar Cycles 23 and 24: Properties and Space Weather Relevance" Universe 8, no. 1: 39. https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8010039

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