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Article

Benefit of New High-Precision LLR Data for the Determination of Relativistic Parameters

1
Institute of Geodesy, Leibniz University Hannover, Schneiderberg 50, 30167 Hannover, Germany
2
Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Université Côte d’Azur, CNRS, IRD, Géoazur, 06460 Caussols, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Philippe Jetzer and Domenico Giulini
Universe 2021, 7(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7020034
Received: 21 December 2020 / Revised: 27 January 2021 / Accepted: 31 January 2021 / Published: 3 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Tests of General Relativity)
Since 1969, Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) data have been collected by various observatories and analysed by different analysis groups. In the recent years, observations with bigger telescopes (APOLLO) and at infra-red wavelength (OCA) are carried out, resulting in a better distribution of precise LLR data over the lunar orbit and the observed retro-reflectors on the Moon. This is a great advantage for various investigations in the LLR analysis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the benefit of the new LLR data for the determination of relativistic parameters. Here, we show current results for relativistic parameters like a possible temporal variation of the gravitational constant G˙/G0=(5.0±9.6)×1015yr1, the equivalence principle with Δmg/miEM=(2.1±2.4)×1014, and the PPN parameters β1=(6.2±7.2)×105 and γ1=(1.7±1.6)×104. The results show a significant improvement in the accuracy of the various parameters, mainly due to better coverage of the lunar orbit, better distribution of measurements over the lunar retro-reflectors, and last but not least, higher accuracy of the data. Within the estimated accuracies, no violation of Einstein’s theory is found and the results set improved limits for the different effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: lunar laser ranging; gravitational constant; equivalence principle; PPN parameters lunar laser ranging; gravitational constant; equivalence principle; PPN parameters
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MDPI and ACS Style

Biskupek, L.; Müller, J.; Torre, J.-M. Benefit of New High-Precision LLR Data for the Determination of Relativistic Parameters. Universe 2021, 7, 34. https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7020034

AMA Style

Biskupek L, Müller J, Torre J-M. Benefit of New High-Precision LLR Data for the Determination of Relativistic Parameters. Universe. 2021; 7(2):34. https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7020034

Chicago/Turabian Style

Biskupek, Liliane, Jürgen Müller, and Jean-Marie Torre. 2021. "Benefit of New High-Precision LLR Data for the Determination of Relativistic Parameters" Universe 7, no. 2: 34. https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7020034

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