Next Article in Journal
Superfluid Neutron Matter with a Twist
Next Article in Special Issue
Holocene Millennial-Scale Solar Variability and the Climatic Responses on Earth
Previous Article in Journal
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Universe in 2020
Previous Article in Special Issue
Correlations between Earthquake Properties and Characteristics of Possible ULF Geomagnetic Precursor over Multiple Earthquakes
Article

Comparison of EEJ Longitudinal Variation from Satellite and Ground Measurements over Different Solar Activity Levels

1
Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Space Science Centre (ANGKASA), Institute of Climate Change, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, 33 Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan
5
International Center for Space Weather Science and Education, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan
6
Malaysian Space Agency (MYSA), Banting 42700, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Universe 2021, 7(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7020023
Received: 6 December 2020 / Revised: 17 January 2021 / Accepted: 21 January 2021 / Published: 23 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Space Weather)
The longitudinal variability and local time of equatorial electrojet (EEJ) current using simultaneous data recorded by ground and satellite magnetometers at different levels of solar activity were investigated. In this study, we used data from the CHAMP and Swarm satellites to obtain EEJ current measurements around the globe. The ground data were provided by the MAGDAS, INTERMAGNET, and IIG networks. The ground observation was carried out by analyzing magnetometer data in four different sectors: the South American, Indian, African, and Southeast Asian sectors. These ground data were normalized to the dip equator to overcome the latitudinal variation of each station. The analysis for both measurements was performed using quiet day data. Both the ground and satellite data were categorized according to solar activity level; low, moderate, and high. The results revealed that, during the low solar activity, there was a good agreement between the longitudinal profiles of the EEJ measured using the satellite and the ground data. In general, strong correlations were obtained in most of the sectors where ground data were available between 11 and 13 local time (LT). Besides that, our analysis revealed that the different times of maximum EEJ appearances were seasonally dependent only at certain longitude sectors. View Full-Text
Keywords: equatorial electrojet; EEJ longitudinal variation; EEJ peak time equatorial electrojet; EEJ longitudinal variation; EEJ peak time
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ismail, W.N.I.; Hamid, N.S.A.; Abdullah, M.; Yoshikawa, A.; Uozumi, T.; Radzi, Z.M. Comparison of EEJ Longitudinal Variation from Satellite and Ground Measurements over Different Solar Activity Levels. Universe 2021, 7, 23. https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7020023

AMA Style

Ismail WNI, Hamid NSA, Abdullah M, Yoshikawa A, Uozumi T, Radzi ZM. Comparison of EEJ Longitudinal Variation from Satellite and Ground Measurements over Different Solar Activity Levels. Universe. 2021; 7(2):23. https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7020023

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ismail, Wan N.I., Nurul S.A. Hamid, Mardina Abdullah, Akimasa Yoshikawa, Teiji Uozumi, and Zahira M. Radzi 2021. "Comparison of EEJ Longitudinal Variation from Satellite and Ground Measurements over Different Solar Activity Levels" Universe 7, no. 2: 23. https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7020023

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop